Keyword: laser
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MOA01 Riding the FEL Instability (Dedicated to Alberto Renieri) electron, storage-ring, free-electron-laser, radiation 1
 
  • G. Dattoli
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma), Italy
  • M.-E. Couprie
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • C. Pellegrini
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  The Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation, like that of any Free Electron source of coherent radiation, is associated with the onset of an instability. The interplay between the FEL and other instabilities, affecting the beam, is one of the interesting aspects of the associated dynamics. It involves issues of practical interest (Renieri Limit in Storage Ring FELs, suppression of instabilities like saw-tooth and synchrotron…). The paper reviews these problems and offers an overview of the scientific contribution of Alberto Renieri to the FEL from this perspective.  
slides icon Slides MOA01 [5.143 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-MOA01  
About • paper received ※ 26 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 09 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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MOA02 First Lasing of a Free Electron Laser in the Soft X-Ray Spectral Range with Echo Enabled Harmonic Generation FEL, electron, experiment, free-electron-laser 7
 
  • E. Allaria, A. Abrami, L. Badano, M. Bossi, N. Bruchon, F. Capotondi, D. Castronovo, M. Cautero, P. Cinquegrana, M. Coreno, I. Cudin, M.B. Danailov, G. De Ninno, A.A. Demidovich, S. Di Mitri, B. Diviacco, W.M. Fawley, M. Ferianis, L. Foglia, G. Gaio, F. Giacuzzo, L. Giannessi, S. Grulja, F. Iazzourene, G. Kurdi, M. Lonza, N. Mahne, M. Malvestuto, M. Manfredda, C. Masciovecchio, N.S. Mirian, I. Nikolov, G. Penco, E. Principi, L. Raimondi, P. Rebernik Ribič, R. Sauro, C. Scafuri, P. Sigalotti, S. Spampinati, C. Spezzani, L. Sturari, M. Svandrlik, M. Trovò, M. Veronese, D. Vivoda, M. Zaccaria, D. Zangrando, M. Zangrando
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • H.-H. Braun, E. Ferrari, E. Prat, S. Reiche
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • N. Bruchon
    University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
  • M. Coreno
    CNR-ISM, Trieste, Italy
  • M.-E. Couprie, A. Ghaith
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • G. De Ninno
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia
  • C. Feng
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • F. Frassetto, L.P. Poletto
    LUXOR, Padova, Italy
  • D. Garzella
    CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • V. Grattoni
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • E. Hemsing
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • P. Miotti
    CNR-IFN, Padova, Italy
  • G. Penn
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • M.A. Pop
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • E. Roussel
    PhLAM/CERCLA, Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France
  • T. Tanikawa
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • D. Xiang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  We report on the successful operation of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) in the Echo Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) scheme at the FERMI facility at Sincrotrone Trieste. The experiment required a modification of the FEL-2 undulator line which, in normal operation, uses two stages of high-gain harmonic generation separated by a delay line. In addition to a new seed laser, the dispersion in the delay-line was increased, the second stage modulator changed and a new manipulator installed in the delay-line chicane hosting additional diagnostic components. With this modified setup we have demonstrated the first evidence of strong exponential gain in a free electron laser operated in EEHG mode at wavelengths as short as 5 nm.  
slides icon Slides MOA02 [5.133 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-MOA02  
About • paper received ※ 21 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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MOA03 First Lasing at the CAEP THz FEL Facility FEL, electron, free-electron-laser, high-voltage 11
 
  • P. Li, T.H. He, M. Li, J. Liu, X. Luo, Q. Pan, L.J. Shan, X. Shen, H. Wang, J. Wang, D. Wu, D.X. Xiao, Y. Xu, L.G. Yan, P. Zhang, K. Zhou
    CAEP/IAE, Mianyang, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
  • Y. Liu
    CAEP/IFP, Mainyang, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
 
  China Academy of Engineering Physics terahertz free electron laser (CAEP THz FEL, CTFEL) is the first THz FEL user facility in China, which was an oscillator type FEL. This THz FEL facility consists of a GaAs photocathode high-voltage DC gun, a superconducting RF linac, a planar undulator and a quasi-concentric optical resonator. The terahertz laser’s frequency is continuous adjustable from 0.7 THz to 4.2 THz. The average power is more than 10 W and the micro-pulse power is more than 0.3 MW. In this paper, the specific parameters and operation status of CTFEL are presented. Finally, some user experiments are introduced briefly.  
slides icon Slides MOA03 [3.771 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-MOA03  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 18 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUA04 Harmonic Lasing Experiment at the European XFEL FEL, undulator, electron, free-electron-laser 29
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, F. Brinker, W. Decking, M.W. Guetg, S. Liu, D. Nölle, M. Scholz, M.V. Yurkov, I. Zagorodnov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • G. Geloni, N. Gerasimova, J. Grünert, S. Karabekyan, N.G. Kujala, J. Laksman, Y. Li, J. Liu, Th. Maltezopoulos, I. Petrov, L. Samoylova, S. Serkez, H. Sinn, F. Wolff-Fabris
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
 
  Harmonic lasing is an opportunity to extend the photon energy range of existing and planned X-ray FEL user facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide a much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam. Another interesting application is Harmonic Lasing Self-Seeding (HLSS) that allows to improve the longitudinal coherence and spectral power of a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL. This concept was successfully tested at FLASH in the range of 4.5 - 15 nm and at PAL XFEL at 1 nm. In this contribution we present recent results from the European XFEL where we successfully demonstrated operation of HLSS FEL at 5.9 Angstrom and 2.8 Angstrom, in the latter case obtaining both 3rd and 5th harmonic lasing.  
slides icon Slides TUA04 [1.174 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUA04  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUB01 Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Lasing of the FERMI FEL in the Soft X-Ray Spectral Region FEL, electron, free-electron-laser, photon 33
 
  • P. Rebernik Ribič
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • P. Rebernik Ribič
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia
 
  The layout of the FERMI FEL-2 undulator line, normally operated in the two-stage high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) configuration, was temporarily modified to allow running the FEL in the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) mode. The EEHG setup produced stable, intense and nearly fully coherent pulses at wavelengths as short as 5.9 nm (211 eV). Comparing the performance to the two-stage HGHG showed that EEHG gives significantly better spectra in terms of the central wavelength stability and bandwidth, especially at high harmonics, where electron-beam imperfections start to play a significant role. Observation of stable, narrow-band, coherent emission down to 2.6 nm (474 eV) indicates the possibility to extend the lasing region to even shorter wavelengths.  
slides icon Slides TUB01 [10.360 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUB01  
About • paper received ※ 21 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP002 Progress in Preparing a Proof-of-Principle Experiment for THz SASE FEL at PITZ FEL, undulator, experiment, flattop 41
 
  • X. Li, P. Boonpornprasert, Y. Chen, G.Z. Georgiev, J.D. Good, M. Groß, P.W. Huang, I.I. Isaev, C. Koschitzki, M. Krasilnikov, S. Lal, O. Lishilin, G. Loisch, D. Melkumyan, R. Niemczyk, A. Oppelt, H.J. Qian, H. Shaker, G. Shu, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
 
  A proof-of-princle experiment for a THz SASE FEL is undergoing preparation at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ), as a prototype THz source for pump-probe experiments at the European XFEL, which could potentially provide up to mJ/pulse THz radiation while maintaining the identical pulse train structure as the XFEL pulses. In the proof-of-principle experiment, LCLS-I undulators will be installed to generate SASE radiation in the THz range of 3-5 THz from electron bunches of 16-22 MeV/c. One key design is to obtain the peak current of nearly 200 A from the heavily charged bunches of a few nC. In this paper, we report our simulation results on the optimization of the space charge dominated beam in the photo injector and the following transport line with two cathode laser setups. Experimental results based on a short Gaussian laser will also be discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP002  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP012 Smith-Purcell Radiation Emitted by Pico-second Electron Bunches from a 30 keV Photo-Electron Gun electron, radiation, experiment, gun 66
 
  • M.R. Asakawa, S. Yamaguchi
    Kansai University, Osaka, Japan
 
  In this paper, an experiment to generate Smith-Purcell radiation using pico-second electron bunches is reported. The electron bunch was produced by a DC 30 keV photo-electron electron gun driven by a 100 fs Ti:sapphire laser. The charge of the bunch varied from 1 pC to 300 pC by changing the laser power. Smith-Purcell radiation experiment was performed with the central part of the entire electron bunch. Estimation of pulsewidth of the bunch based on the envelope equation showed that the pulsewidth of the bunch at the anode electrode increased from 0.8 ps to 3.2 ps as the bunch charge increase from 0.1 pC to 11 pC. Such electron bunch was traveled along the surface of the metallic grating with a period of 2 mm. The radiation wavelength was estimated to be 4 mm at an obserbation angle of 10 degree. The radiation power was measured by a bolometer and quadraticallly increased with the bunch charge. Numerical simulation of this experiment indicated the enhancement of the harmonic components of the radiation. We are now constructing a THz-TDS system to measure the time-trace of the electric field of the radiation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP012  
About • paper received ※ 14 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP015 Design of High-Repetition Terahertz Super-Radiation Based on CAEP THz FEL Superconducting Beamline radiation, electron, FEL, undulator 73
 
  • D. Wu, T.H. He, L.B. Li, M. Li, P. Li, X. Luo, Q. Pan, L.J. Shan, X. Shen, H. Wang, J. Wang, D.X. Xiao, L.G. Yan, P. Zhang, K. Zhou
    CAEP/IAE, Mianyang, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
 
  China Academy of Engineering Physics terahertz free electron laser (CAEP THz FEL, CTFEL) is the first THz FEL oscillator in China. CTFEL spectrum covers from 0.7 THz to 4.2 THz. However, there are still many applications requiring lower frequency. The super-radiation of the ultra-short electron beam bunches could generate ultra-fast, carrier-envelope-phase-stable, and high-field terahertz. The coherent diffraction/transition radiation (CDR/CTR) and coherent undulator radiation (CUR) can be also synchronized naturally. In this paper, the dynamic and the design of the super-radiation are introduced. The main parameters of the CDR/CTR and CUR are also discussed. A multi-color pump-probe system based on super-radiation is also proposed.
Work supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China with grant (11575264, 11605190 and 11805192), Innovation Foundation of CAEP with grant (CX2019036, CX2019037)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP015  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP033 Q-Switching of X-Ray Optical Cavities by Using Boron Doped Buried Layer Under a Surface of a Diamond Crystal FEL, cavity, electron, free-electron-laser 122
 
  • J. Krzywiński, Y. Feng, A. Halavanau, Z. Huang, A.M. Kiss, J.P. MacArthur, G. Marcus, T. Sato, D. Zhu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Improvement of the longitudinal coherence of X-ray Free Electron Lasers has been the subject of many recent investigations. The XFEL oscillator (XFELO) and Regenerative Amplifier Free-Electron Laser (RAFEL) schemes offer a pathway to fully coherent, high brightness X-ray radiation. The XFELO and RAFEL consist of a high repetition rate electron beam, an undulator and an X-ray crystal cavity to provide optical feedback. The X-ray cavity will be based on diamond crystals in order to manage a high thermal load. We are investigating a ’Q switching’ mechanism that involves the use of a ’Bragg switch’ to dump the X-ray pulse energy built-up inside an X-ray cavity. In particular, one can use an optical laser to manipulate the diamond crystal lattice constant to control the crystal reflectivity and transmission. It has been shown that a 9 MeV focused boron beam can create a buried layer, approximately 5 microns below surface, with a boron concentration up to 1021 atoms/cm3. Here, we present simulations showing that absorbing laser pulses by a buried layer under the crystal surface would allow creating a transient temperature profile which would be well suited for the ’Q switching’ scheme.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP033  
About • paper received ※ 21 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP035 Sensitivity of LCLS Self-Seeded Pedestal Emission to Laser Heater Strength electron, free-electron-laser, experiment, bunching 126
 
  • G. Marcus, D.K. Bohler, Y. Ding, W.M. Fawley, Y. Feng, E. Hemsing, Z. Huang, J. Krzywiński, A.A. Lutman, D.F. Ratner
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Measurements of the soft X-ray, self-seeding spectrum at the LCLS free-electron laser generally display a pedestal-like distribution around the central seeded wavelength that degrades the spectral purity. We have investigated the detailed experimental characteristics of this pedestal and found that it is comprised of two separate components: (1) normal SASE whose total strength is nominally insensitive to energy detuning and laser heater (LH) strength; (2) sideband-like emission whose strength positively correlates with that of the amplified seed and negatively with energy detuning and LH strength. We believe this latter, non-SASE component arises from comparatively long wavelength amplitude and phase modulations of the main seeded radiation line. Its shot-to-shot variability and LH sensitivity suggests an origin connected to growth of the longitudinal microbunching instability on the electron beam. Here, we present experimental results taken over a number of shifts that illustrate the above mentioned characteristics.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP035  
About • paper received ※ 28 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP038 Axial Symmetry in Spontaneous Undulator Radiation for XFELO Two-Bunch Experiment FEL, electron, experiment, radiation 134
 
  • Y.S. Li
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • K. Kim, R.R. Lindberg
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and National Science Foundation under Award No. PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
A well known discrepancy exists between 2D and 3D FEL simulation codes with respect to the radiation field intensity prior to the exponential gain regime [1]. This can be qualitatively explained by the fact that the 3D field representation preserves many more modes than does the axisymmetric field solved for by a 2D code. In this paper, we seek to develop an analytical model that quantifies this difference. We begin by expanding the spontaneous undulator radiation field as a multipole series, whose lowest order mode is axisymmetric. This allows us to calculate the difference in predicted intensity. Next, we confirm these results with numerical calculation and existing FEL codes GINGER and GENESIS. Finally, we discuss the implications of this study with respect to the XFELO two-bunch experiment to be conducted at LCLS-II.
[1] Z. Huang and K.-J. Kim, "Review of X-ray free-electron laser theory", Phys. Rev. ST-AB, vol. 10, p. 034801, 2007.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP038  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP054 An Investigation of Possible Non-Standard Photon Statistics in a Free-Electron Laser II: Theory electron, photon, FEL, radiation 165
 
  • J.-W. Park
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu,, USA
  • K.-J. Kim, R.R. Lindberg
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • K.-J. Kim
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of BES, under Award No. DE-SC0018428.
In this paper we explore whether we can at present find a theoretical basis for non-standard, sub-Poissonian photon statistics in the coherent spontaneous harmonic radiation of an FEL as was claimed to have been measured with the Mark III FEL [1]. We develop a one dimensional quantum FEL oscillator model of the harmonic radiation in the linear gain regime to calculate the photon statistics. According to our study, it seems unlikely that the photon statistics for an FEL oscillator starting from the noise could be sub-Poissonian.
[1] T. Chen and J.M. Madey, J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5906 (2001).
 
poster icon Poster TUP054 [0.386 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP054  
About • paper received ※ 21 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 16 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP055 Two-Color Operation of FLASH2 Undulator undulator, electron, FEL, operation 168
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, M. Braune, B. Faatz, U. Jastrow, M. Kuhlmann, A.A. Sorokin, K.I. Tiedtke, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  FLASH is the first soft X-ray FEL user facility, routinely providing brilliant photon beams for users since 2005. The second undulator branch of this facility, FLASH2, is gap-tunable which allows to test and use advanced lasing concepts. In particular, we tested recently a two-color mode of operation based on the alternation of tunes of the undulator segments (every other segment is tuned to the second wavelength). This scheme is advantageous in comparison with a subsequent generation of two colors in two different parts of the undulator. First, source positions of two FEL beams are close to each other which makes it easier to handle them. Second, the amplification is more efficient in this configuration since the segments with respectively "wrong" wavelength act as bunchers. We developed methods for online intensity measurements of the two colors simultaneously that require a combination of two detectors. We present some examples of such measurements in the XUV and soft X-ray regimes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP055  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP056 Feasibility Studies of the 100 keV Undulator Line of the European XFEL undulator, FEL, electron, photon 172
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, V. Balandin, W. Decking, M. Dohlus, N. Golubeva, D. Nölle, M.V. Yurkov, I. Zagorodnov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • G. Geloni, Y. Li, S. Molodtsov, J. Pflüger, S. Serkez, H. Sinn, T. Tanikawa, S. Tomin
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
 
  The European XFEL is a multi-user X-ray FEL facility based on superconducting linear accelerator. Presently, three undulators (SASE1, SASE2, SASE3) deliver high-brightness soft- and hard- X-ray beams for users. There are two empty undulator tunnels that were originally designed to operate with spontaneous radiators. We consider instead a possible installation of two FEL undulators. One of them (SASE4) is proposed for the operation in ultrahard X-ray regime, up to the photon energy of 100 keV. In this contribution we present the results of the first feasibility studies of this option.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP056  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP059 Influence of Energy Chirp in the Electron Beam and Undulator Tapering on Spatial Properties of the Radiation From Seeded and SASE FEL FEL, undulator, radiation, electron 184
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Energy chirp and undulator tapering change resonance condition along the electron beam and undulator which results in modification of the radiation amplification process. Well known examples are post-saturation undulator tapering for radiation power increase, reverse undulator tapering for effective operation of afterburners, and application of linear undulator tapering for compensation of energy chirp effect. These are essentially one dimensional effects. In addition, energy chirp and undulator tapering also change spatial properties of the radiation which can be important for the users of X-ray FEL facilities. In this report we present detailed analysis of the spatial properties of the radiation from an FEL amplifier with tapered undulator and chirped electron beam. Two configurations, seeded FEL amplifier, and SASE FEL are under consideration. Dependence of the spatial distributions on the electron beam properties is studied, and their evolution along the undulator is traced. It is shown that spatial properties of the radiation may be significantly distorted by the effects of energy chirp in the electron beam and undulator tapering.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP059  
About • paper received ※ 24 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP060 An Advanced Compression Option for the European XFEL electron, undulator, photon, FEL 187
 
  • I. Zagorodnov, M. Dohlus, E. Schneidmiller, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  An advanced compression scheme which allows to obtain a high peak current while preserving the low slice emittance is considered. The beam is compressed weakly in the bunch compressors and the current is increased by eSASE setup at the entrance of the undulator line. It is shown by numerical studies that such approach allows to reduce harmful collective effects in the bunch compressors and in the transport line. Simulations of FEL physics confirm the possibility to obtain a high level of SASE radiation at the ultra-hard photon energy level of 100 keV.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP060  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP064 Effect on FEL Gain Curve Using Phase Shifters FEL, electron, undulator, simulation 203
 
  • M.H. Cho, H.-S. Kang, G. Kim, C.H. Shim, H. Yang
    PAL, Pohang, Republic of Korea
 
  Phase matching between FEL and electron beam should be precisely controlled for FEL amplification. Phase shifters located between undulators performs the phase matching. An electron beam can be controlled to be in the in- or out-phase by setting the phase shifters from the phase shifter scan. In this article, we show effects of FEL gain curve by setting the in- and out-phase of electron beam. We address reasons of the reduction of FEL intensity in the out-phase condition dividing the linear and saturation FEL amplification regimes. In the linear regime the gain curve is shifted, and in the saturation regime the electron loss occurs during the undulator tapering. Our results show agreements with experiments performed at PAL-XFEL.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP064  
About • paper received ※ 21 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP067 Advanced Concepts in the Design for the Soft X-Ray FEL at MAX IV undulator, FEL, electron, brightness 214
 
  • W. Qin, F. Curbis, M.A. Pop, S. Werin
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • F. Curbis, S. Werin
    SLF, Lund, Sweden
 
  Funding: The work is supported by Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation.
A Soft X-ray FEL (the SXL) is currently being designed at the MAX IV Laboratory. In the work to adapt the FEL to the scientific cases several advanced options are being studied for coherence enhancement, generation of short pulses and two-color pulses. We will discuss the current status and the schemes studied, especially regarding the FEL performance with the features of the MAX IV linac, including a positive energy chirp.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP067  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP073 High-Repetition-Rate Seeding Schemes Using a Resonator-Amplifier Setup FEL, electron, radiation, cavity 222
 
  • S. Ackermann, B. Faatz, V. Grattoni, C. Lechner, G. Paraskaki
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • G. Geloni, S. Serkez, T. Tanikawa
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • W. Hillert
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The spectral and temporal properties of Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) operating on the basis of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) suffer from the stochastic behavior of the start-up process. Several so-called "seeding"-techniques using external radiation fields to overcome this limitation have been proposed and demonstrated. The external seed is usually generated by demanding, high-power laser systems, which are not available with a sufficient laser pulse energy at the high repetition rates of superconducting FEL facilities. In this contribution we discuss several seeding schemes that lower the requirements for the used laser systems, enabling seeded operation at high repetition rates by the means of a resonator-amplifier setup.  
poster icon Poster TUP073 [0.521 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP073  
About • paper received ※ 06 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP074 FLASH Upgrade for Seeding FEL, undulator, simulation, electron 226
 
  • V. Grattoni, S. Ackermann, B. Faatz, T. Lang, C. Lechner, M.M. Mohammad Kazemi, G. Paraskaki
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Hillert
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  An upgrade for FLASH, the SASE FEL in Hamburg, is planned after 2020 aiming at fulfilling user requirements like fully coherent, variable polarization, and multi-colour pulses. In this proceeding, we focus on the FLASH1 beamline that will be operated in seeded mode at a high repetition rate. In particular, we will present and discuss the proposed seeding schemes for delivering FEL radiation with wavelengths from 60 down to 4 nm  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP074  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP076 Seeding R&D at sFLASH electron, FEL, free-electron-laser, experiment 230
 
  • C. Lechner, S. Ackermann, R.W. Aßmann, B. Faatz, V. Grattoni, I. Hartl, S.D. Hartwell, R. Ivanov, T. Laarmann, T. Lang, M.M. Mohammad Kazemi, G. Paraskaki, A. Przystawik, J. Zheng
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Azima, H. Biss, M. Drescher, W. Hillert, V. Miltchev, J. Roßbach
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Khan
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany under contract No. 05K13GU4, 05K13PE3, and 05K16PEA.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) principle generate photon pulses with typically poor longitudinal coherence. FEL seeding techniques greatly improve longitudinal coherence by initiating FEL amplification in a controlled way using coherent light pulses. The sFLASH experiment installed at the FEL user facility FLASH at DESY in Hamburg is dedicated to the study of external seeding techniques. In this paper, the layout of the sFLASH seeding experiment is presented and an overview of recent developments is given.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP076  
About • paper received ※ 30 September 2019       paper accepted ※ 17 October 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP077 Study of a Seeded Oscillator-Amplifier FEL electron, FEL, simulation, free-electron-laser 234
 
  • G. Paraskaki, S. Ackermann, B. Faatz, V. Grattoni, C. Lechner, M. Mehrjoo
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • G. Geloni, S. Serkez, T. Tanikawa
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • W. Hillert
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  In recent years, there is interest of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) community in external-seeding techniques such as the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) and the High-Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG). With these techniques, pulses of an improved temporal coherence are generated, but at the same time, they are limited by the repetition rates that seed lasers can currently offer with the required pulse energies. A big challenge is to combine the advantages of seeding schemes with high repetition rates. For this purpose, we study a combination of an oscillator-amplifier. The modulator in the oscillator is used at a long wavelength to modulate the electron beam and an amplifier is operated to extract the FEL radiation of the desired harmonic. This way we can use a seed laser of 10 Hz in a burst mode and a resonator to feedback the radiation at repetition rates of superconducting accelerators instead of using an external seed at these high-repetition rates. In this contribution, we present simulation results of a seeded oscillator-amplifier FEL in an HGHG scheme.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP077  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP078 Impact of Electron Beam Energy Chirp on Seeded FELs electron, FEL, simulation, timing 238
 
  • G. Paraskaki, S. Ackermann, B. Faatz, V. Grattoni, C. Lechner, J. Zemella
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Hillert
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Seeded FELs enable the generation of fully coherent, transform-limited and high brightness FEL pulses, as the start-up process is driven by an external coherent light pulse. During the design process of such FELs, it is important to choose carefully the electron beam parameters to guarantee high performance. One of those parameters is the electron beam energy chirp. In this contribution, we show simulation results and we discuss how the electron beam energy chirp affects the final spectrum.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP078  
About • paper received ※ 16 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP080 Harmonic Off-Axis Seeding at the DELTA Short-Pulse Source electron, undulator, radiation, polarization 246
 
  • A. Meyer auf der Heide, B. Büsing, S. Khan, D. Krieg, C. Mai
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the BMBF (05K16PEA, 05K16PEB), MERCUR (Pr-2014-0047), DFG (INST 212/236-1 FUGG) and the state of NRW
At the 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source DELTA operated by the TU Dortmund University, a short-pulse source employs the coherent harmonic generation (CHG) scheme. Here, a laser pulse interacts with a stored electron bunch forming a microbunching structure to generate ultrashort synchrotron light pulses at harmonics of the laser wavelength. As an upgrade of the short-pulse facility, the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme will be implemented, which requires a second laser-electron interaction to yield much higher harmonics compared to CHG. In a study towards twofold laser seeding, the possibility of seeding at undulator harmonics with a crossing angle between laser and electron beam was investigated.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP080  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP083 Energy Spread Impact on HGHG and EEHG FEL Pulse Energy FEL, electron, bunching, photon 250
 
  • S. Spampinati, E. Allaria, L. Giannessi, P. Rebernik Ribič
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • L. Giannessi
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma), Italy
  • P. Rebernik Ribič
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia
 
  VUV and X-ray free electron lasers (FELs) require a very bright electron beam. Seeded FEL harmonic generation is particularly sensible to energy spread and slice energy spread can limit the highest harmonic conversion factor at which coherent radiation can be produced. Different cas-cade schemes can have different sensibility to the slice energy spread. At FERMI we have evaluated the impact of the slice energy spread on the performance of high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and of echo enable harmonic generation (EEHG) by measuring the FEL pulse energy as function of the electron beam slice energy spread. The measurements were done at different harmon-ics. The slice energy spread was varied trough the laser heater located in the linac that drives FERMI.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP083  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 17 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP088 Numerical Simulations for Generating Fully Coherent Soft X-Ray Free Electron Lasers With Ultra-Short Wavelength electron, radiation, FEL, free-electron-laser 258
 
  • K.S. Zhou, H.X. Deng, B. Liu, D. Wang
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  For the fully coherent, ultra-short and high power soft X-rays are becoming key instruments in many different research fields, such as biology, chemistry or physics. However, it’s hard to generate this kind of advanced light source by the conventional lasers, especially for the soft X-rays with ultra-short wavelength because of no suitable reflectors. The external seeded free electron laser (FEL) is considered as one feasible method. Here, we give an example to generate highly temporal coherent soft X-rays with the wavelength 1 nm by the two-stage cascaded schemes. EEHG scheme is used as the first-stage while the HGHG scheme is used as the second-stage.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP088  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 October 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP090 Considerations on Implementing EEHG with a Strong Linear Chirp electron, FEL, simulation, bunching 262
 
  • M.A. Pop, F. Curbis, W. Qin, S. Werin
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • F. Curbis, S. Werin
    SLF, Lund, Sweden
  • W. Qin
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden
 
  Funding: The work is supported by Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation.
The Soft X-ray Laser (SXL) currently being studied at MAX IV Laboratory is envisioned to produce coherent radiation in the 1-5 nm wavelength range. In this contribution, we present the results of simulations aimed at adding to the SXL an Echo Enabled Harmonic Generation scheme, which has been shown to increase the coherence of FELs in the Soft X-ray regime. Our work puts special emphasis on accommodating the positive energy chirp of the electron bunch coming out of the MAX IV Linac and on generating sufficient bunching at the high harmonics necessary for covering the full wavelength range.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP090  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUP091 Start-to-End Simulation of the NSRRC Seeded VUV FEL FEL, electron, undulator, simulation 266
 
  • S.Y. Teng
    NTHU, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  • C.H. Chen, W.K. Lau, A.P. Lee
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
 
  A free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness electron linac system has been proposed to generate ultrashort intense coherent radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet region. It is a third harmonic high-gain high harmonic generation (HGHG) FEL for generation of VUV radiation with wavelength at 66.7 nm from a 20-mm period length helical undulator. A 200-nm seed laser is used for beam energy modulation in a 10-periods helical undulator of 24-mm period length. A small chicane is placed between the two undulators to optimize power growth in the radiator. In this study, we perform start-to-end simulation to foresee the operational performance of the test facility and preliminary results are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP091  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUD02 Application of Infrared FEL Oscillators for Producing Isolated Attosecond X-Ray Pulses via High-Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases FEL, cavity, experiment, photon 272
 
  • R. Hajima, K. Kawase, R. Nagai
    QST, Tokai, Japan
  • Y. Hayakawa, T. Sakai, Y. Sumitomo
    LEBRA, Funabashi, Japan
  • T. Miyajima, M. Shimada
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Ohgaki, H. Zen
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
 
  Funding: Quantum Leap Flagship Program (MEXT Q-LEAP)
High harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases is now becoming a common technology to produce attosecond pulses in VUV wavelengths. So far HHG sources have been realized by femtosecond solid-state lasers, not FELs. We propose a FEL-driven HHG source to explore attosecond pulses at photon energies above 1 keV with a MHz-repetition, which is difficult with solid-state lasers [1]. A research program has been launched to establish technologies for the FEL-HHG, which covers generation and characterization of few-cycle IR pulses in a FEL oscillator, stacking of FEL pulses in an external cavity, and a seed laser for stabilization of carrier-envelope phase in a FEL oscillator. In this talk, we present the scheme of FEL-HHG and the status of the research program.
[1] R. Hajima and R. Nagai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 204802 (2017)
 
slides icon Slides TUD02 [8.995 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUD02  
About • paper received ※ 23 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUD03 Fine and Hyperfine Structure of FEL Emission Spectra FEL, electron, radiation, experiment 276
 
  • V.V. Kubarev, Ya.V. Getmanov, O.A. Shevchenko
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • S. Bae, Y.U. Jeong
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
 
  This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the fine and hyperfine spectral structures of the Novosibirsk free-electron laser (NovoFEL) and the compact free-electron laser of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI FEL) by means of the optimal instruments, resonance Fabry-Perot interferometers. The very high coherence of the NovoFEL spectrum was measured in regimes with one pulse circulating inside its optical resonator (the coherence length is 7 km, and the relative width of the hyperfine structure lines is 2E-8) and with total absence of coherence between two circulating pulses, i.e. the fine structure. Sixty pulses circulate simultaneously inside the KAERI FEL optical resonator, and the measured coherence length on average covers ten pulses (the coherence length is 1 m; the relative width of the fine structure lines is 10-4).  
slides icon Slides TUD03 [3.177 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUD03  
About • paper received ※ 16 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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TUD04 Cavity-Based Free-Electron Laser Research and Development: A Joint Argonne National Laboratory and SLAC National Laboratory Collaboration FEL, electron, cavity, undulator 282
 
  • G. Marcus, F.-J. Decker, G.L. Gassner, A. Halavanau, J.B. Hastings, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, J.P. MacArthur, R.A. Margraf, T.O. Raubenheimer, A. Sakdinawat, T.-F. Tan, D. Zhu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • J.W.J. Anton, L. Assoufid, K. Goetze, W.G. Jansma, S.P. Kearney, K. Kim, R.R. Lindberg, A. Miceli, X. Shi, D. Shu, Yu. Shvyd’ko, J.P. Sullivan, M. White
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • B. Lantz
    Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
 
  One solution for producing longitudinally coherent FEL pulses is to store and recirculate the output of an amplifier in an X-ray cavity so that the X-ray pulse can interact with following fresh electron bunches over many passes. The X-ray FEL oscillator (XFELO) and the X-ray regenerative amplifier FEL (XRAFEL) concepts use this technique and rely on the same fundamental ingredients to realize their full capability. Both schemes require a high repetition rate electron beam, an undulator to provide FEL gain, and an X-ray cavity to recirculate and monochromatize the radiation. The shared infrastructure, complementary performance characteristics, and potentially transformative FEL properties of the XFELO and XRAFEL have brought together a joint Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and SLAC National Laboratory (SLAC) collaboration aimed at enabling these schemes at LCLS-II. We present plans to install a rectangular X-ray cavity in the LCLS-II undulator hall and perform experiments employing 2-bunch copper RF linac accelerated electron beams. This includes performing cavity ring-down measurements and 2-pass gain measurements for both the low-gain XFELO and the high-gain RAFEL schemes.  
slides icon Slides TUD04 [12.425 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUD04  
About • paper received ※ 25 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEB04 Few-Femtosecond Facility-Wide Synchronization of the European XFEL FEL, electron, FEM, timing 318
 
  • S. Schulz, M.K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Fenner, C. Gerth, T. Kozak, T. Lamb, B. Lautenschlager, F. Ludwig, U. Mavrič, J. Müller, S. Pfeiffer, H. Schlarb, Ch. Schmidt, C. Sydlo, M. Titberidze, F. Zummack
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The first facility-wide evaluation of the optical synchronization system at the European XFEL resulted in excellent arrival time stability of the electron bunches at the end of the 2 km long linac, being measured with two individual adjacent femtosecond-resolution bunch arrival time monitors. While each of the monitors is independently linked by a stabilized optical fiber to a master laser oscillator, with one being installed in the injector area and one in the experimental hall, these two reference lasers are tightly synchronized through another few-km long fiber link. Thus, not only the accelerator performance is being benchmarked, but equally the optical synchronization infrastructure itself. Stability on this level can only be achieved by locking the RF for cavity field control to the optical reference and requires an unprecedented synchronization of the master laser oscillator to the main RF oscillator, enabled by a novel RF/optical phase detector. Finally, with the seeders of the experiment’s optical lasers synchronized to the master laser oscillator, first experiments at two independent scientific instruments proved an X-ray/optical timing jitter of few tens of femtoseconds.  
slides icon Slides WEB04 [22.142 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEB04  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP003 Balanced Optical-Microwave Phase Detector for 800-nm Pulsed Lasers with Sub-Femtosecond Resolution detector, timing, electron, operation 322
 
  • K. Şafak, A. Berlin, E. Cano Vargas, H.P.H. Cheng, A. Dai, J. Derksen, M. Neuhaus, P. Schiepel
    Cycle GmbH, Hamburg, Germany
  • F.X. Kärtner
    Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) and Center for Free Electron Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany
 
  Novel light-matter interaction experiments conducted in free-electron lasers, ultrafast electron diffraction instruments and extreme light infrastructures require synchronous operation of microwave sources with femtosecond pulsed lasers [1]. In particular, Ti:sapphire lasers have become the most common near-infrared light source used in these facilities due to their wide-range tunability and their ability to generate ultrashort pulses at around 800-nm optical wavelength [2]. Therefore, a highly sensitive optical-to-microwave phase detector operating at 800 nm is an indispensable tool to synchronize these ubiquitous lasers to the microwave clocks of these facilities. Electro-optic sampling is one approach that has proven to be the most precise in extracting the relative phase noise between microwaves and optical pulse trains. However, their implementation at 800-nm wavelength has been so far limited [3]. Here, we show a balanced optical-microwave phase detector designed for 800-nm operation based on electro-optic sampling. The detector has a timing resolution of 0.01 fs RMS for offset frequencies above 100 Hz and a total noise floor of less than 10 fs RMS integrated from 1 Hz to 1 MHz.
[1] M. Xin, K. Shafak and F. X. Kärtner, Optica, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1564-1578, 2018.
[2] H. Yang et al., Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 39966, 2017.
[3] M. Titberidze, DESY-THESIS-2017-040, 2017.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP003  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP004 Timing Stability Comparison Study of RF Synthesis Techniques timing, FEM, FEL, electron 325
 
  • E. Cano Vargas, F.X. Kärtner
    Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) and Center for Free Electron Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Berlin, H.P.H. Cheng, A. Dai, J. Derksen, P. Schiepel, K. Şafak
    Cycle GmbH, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY); Cycle GmbH.
High-precision and low-noise timing transfer from a master clock to different end stations of a free-electron laser (FEL) is an essential task.[1] Timing precisions ranging from few tens of femtoseconds to sub-femtoseconds are required for seeded FELs and attosecond science centers. Mode-locked lasers referenced to RF standards are commonly used as master oscillators, due to their superior stability and timing precision, depicting timing jitter in the attosecond range.[2] In this matter, one of the biggest challenges is to transfer the timing stability of mode-locked lasers to RF sources. Here, we compare and contrast two of the most common techniques used for laser-to-RF synthesis in FEL facilities: (i) RF signal extraction from the optical pulse train using photodiodes, and (ii) VCO-to-laser synchronization. Test setups are built to measure both the absolute phase noise of the generated RF signal and the relative timing jitter with respect to the mode-locked laser. Short-term timing jitter values varying between 10 and 100 fs are achieved for different test setups, while long term timing drift ranging to some hundreds of fs due to environmental influence are observed.
[1] M. Xin, K. Shafak and F.X. Kärtner, Optica, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1564-1578, 2018.
[2] J. Kim, F.X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 3519-3521, 2007.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP004  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP007 Usage of the MicroTCA.4 Electronics Platform for Femtosecond Synchronization Systems FEL, controls, electron, timing 332
 
  • M. Felber, E.P. Felber, M. Fenner, T. Kozak, T. Lamb, J. Müller, K.P. Przygoda, H. Schlarb, S. Schulz, C. Sydlo, M. Titberidze, F. Zummack
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  At the European XFEL and FLASH at DESY optical synchronization systems are installed providing sub-10 femtosecond electron bunch arrival time stability and laser oscillator synchronization to carry out time-resolved pump-probe experiments with high precision. The synchronization system supplies critical RF stations with short- and long-term phase-stable reference signals for precise RF field detection and control while bunch arrival times are processed in beam-based feedbacks to further time-stabilize the FEL pulses. Experimental lasers are tightly locked to the optical reference using balanced optical cross-correlation. In this paper, we describe the electronic hardware for supervision and real-time control of the optical synchronization system. It comprises various MicroTCA.4 modules including fast digitizers, FPGA processor boards, and drivers for piezos and stepper-motors. Advantages of the system are the high-level of integration, state-of-the-art performance, flexibility, and remote maintainability.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP007  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP010 Femtosecond Laser-to-RF Synchronization and RF Reference Distribution at the European XFEL FEL, feedback, FEM, linac 343
 
  • T. Lamb, M. Felber, T. Kozak, J. Müller, H. Schlarb, S. Schulz, C. Sydlo, M. Titberidze, F. Zummack
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  At the European XFEL, optical pulses from a mode-locked laser are distributed in an optical fiber network providing femtosecond stability throughout the accelerator facility. Due to the large number of RF reference clients and because of the expected higher reliability, the 1.3 GHz RF reference signals are distributed by a conventional coaxial RF distribution system. However, the provided ultra-low phase noise 1.3 GHz RF reference signals may drift over time. To remove these drifts, an optical reference module (REFM-OPT) has been developed to detect and correct environmentally induced phase errors of the RF reference. It uses a femtosecond long-term stable laser-to-RF phase detector, based on an integrated Mach-Zehnder amplitude modulator (MZM), to measure and resynchronize the RF phase with respect to the laser pulses from the optical synchronization system with high accuracy. Currently nine REFM-OPTs are permanently operated at the European XFEL, delivering femtosecond stable RF reference signals for critical accelerating field control stations. The operation experience will be reported together with a detailed evaluation of the REFM-OPT performance.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP010  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP011 Longitudinal Intra-Train Beam-Based Feedback at FLASH feedback, cavity, controls, electron 346
 
  • S. Pfeiffer, L. Butkowski, M.K. Czwalinna, B. Dursun, C. Gerth, B. Lautenschlager, H. Schlarb, Ch. Schmidt
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The longitudinal intra-train beam-based feedback has been recommissioned after major upgrades on the synchronization system of the FLASH facility. Those upgrades include: new bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs), the optical synchronization system accommodating the latest European XFEL design based on PM fibers, and installation of a small broadband normal conducting RF cavity. The cavity is located prior to the first bunch compressor at FLASH and allows energy modulation bunch-by-bunch (1 us spacing) on the per mille range. Through the energy dependent path length of the succeeding magnetic chicane the cavity is used for ultimate bunch arrival time corrections. Recently the RF cavity operated 1 kW pulsed solid-state amplifier was successfully commissioned. First tests have been carried out incorporating the fast cavity as actuator together with SRF stations for larger corrections in our intra-train beam-based feedback pushing now arrival time stabilities towards 5 fs (rms). The latest results and observed residual instabilities are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP011  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 17 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP015 Electro-Optical Bunch Length Detection at the European XFEL electron, photon, FEL, detector 360
 
  • B. Steffen, M.K. Czwalinna, C. Gerth
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Bielawski, C. Evain, E. Roussel, C. Szwaj
    PhLAM/CERCLA, Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France
 
  The electro-optical bunch length detection system based on electro-optic spectral decoding has been installed and is being commissioned at the European XFEL. The system is capable of recording individual longitudinal bunch profiles with sub-picosecond resolution at a bunch repetition rate of 1.13MHz . Bunch lengths and arrival times of entire bunch trains with single-bunch resolution have been measured as well as jitter and drifts for consecutive bunch trains. In addition, we are testing a second electro-optical detection strategy, the so-called photonic time-stretching, which consists of imprinting the electric field of the bunch onto a chirped laser pulse, and then "stretching" the output pulse by optical means. As a result, we obtain is a slowed down "optical replica" of the bunch shape, which can be recorded using a photodiode and GHz-range acquisition. These tests are performed in parallel with the existing spectral decoding technique based on a spectrometer in order to allow a comparative study. In this paper, we present first results for both detection strategies from electron bunches after the second bunch compressor of the European XFEL.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP015  
About • paper received ※ 24 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP016 Precise Laser-to-RF Synchronization of Photocathode Lasers timing, electron, controls, experiment 364
 
  • M. Titberidze, M. Felber, T. Kozak, T. Lamb, J. Müller, H. Schlarb, S. Schulz, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  RF photo-injectors are used in various large, mid and small-scale accelerator facilities such as X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs), external injection-based laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) sources. Many of these facilities require a high precision synchronization of the photo-injector laser system, either because of beam dynamics reasons or the photo-injector directly impacting pump-probe experiments carried out to study physical processes on femtosecond timescales. It is thus crucial to achieve synchronization in the order of 10 fs rms or below between the photocathode laser and the RF source driving the RF gun. In this paper, we present the laser-to-RF synchronization setup employed to lock a commercial near-infrared (NIR) photocathode laser oscillator to a 2.998 GHz RF source. Together with the first results achieving ~ 10 fs rms timing jitter in the measurement bandwidth from 10 Hz up to 1 MHz, we describe an advanced synchronization setup as a future upgrade, promising even lower timing jitter and most importantly long-term timing drift stability.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP016  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP019 Concept of a Novel High-Bandwidth Arrival Time Monitor for Very Low Charges as a Part of the All-Optical Synchronization Systems at XFEL and FLASH pick-up, electron, FEL, free-electron-laser 368
 
  • A. Penirschke
    THM, Friedberg, Germany
  • W. Ackermann
    TEMF, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
  • M.K. Czwalinna, H. Schlarb
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under contract no. 05K19RO1.
Numerous advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions in the order of only a few femtoseconds or better. The generation of these pulses to be used in time-resolved experiments require synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all necessary components to a precision in the range of 1 fs only. To improve the experimental conditions at existing facilities and enable future development of seeded FELs, a new all-optical synchronization system at FLASH and XFEL was implemented, which is based on pulsed optical signals rather than electronic RF signals. In collaboration with DESY, Hamburg the all-optical synchronization system is used to ensure a timing stability on the 10 fs scale at XFEL. For a future ultra-low charge operation mode down to 1 pC at XFEL an overall synchronization of (5+1)fs r.m.s. or better is necessary. This contribution presents a new concept for a ultra-wideband pick-up structure for beampipe diameters down to 10 mm for frequencies up to 100 GHz or higher and at the same time providing sufficient output signal for the attached EOMs.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP019  
About • paper received ※ 23 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP027 A Fast and Accurate Method to Shim Undulator Using Multi-Objective GA undulator, electron, MMI, free-electron-laser 378
 
  • L.G. Yan, L.J. Chen, D.R. Deng, P. Li
    CAEP/IAE, Mianyang, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant of 11505174, 11505173 and 11605190
GA (Genetic Algorithm) is one of the most excellent methods to search the optimal solution for a problem, which has been applied to solve various problems. It is hard to estimate shim applied on raw undulator precisely. There are many methods have been developed to solve the problem. In this proceeding, we proposed a fast and accurate method to conclude the shim using multi-objective GA. A multi-objective objective function was set, and multi-objective optimization was also implemented. The evolution time is reduced by setting optimal evolution parameters. To demonstrate the method, we also finished some test on a prototype undulator U38. As a result, it can be achieved only by shimming three times that all the parameters of trajectory center deviation, peak-to-peak error and phase error satisfied the requirements.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP027  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP030 All-Fiber Photonic, Ultralow-Noise, Robust Optical and Microwave Signal Generators for FELs and UED timing, photon, radiation, operation 382
 
  • J. Kim, I.J. Jeon, D. Kim, D. Kwon
    KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: National Research Foundation of Korea (2018R1A2B3001793) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute
Optical timing and synchronization is becoming a more important and essential element for ultrafast X-ray and electron science. As a result, compact, ultralow-noise, mechanically robust and long-term stable optical and microwave signal generators are highly desirable for future XFELs and UEDs. Here we show that the combination of mode-locked fiber laser and fiber delay-based stabilization method enables the generation of ultralow-noise optical and microwave signals. We show that all-PM fiber lasers can provide excellent mechanical robustness: stable laser operation over >1 hour is maintained even in continuous 1.5 g vibrations [1]. Using a compactly packaged fiber delay as the timing reference, we could stabilize the repetition-rate phase noise of mode-locked lasers down to -100 dBc/Hz and -160 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequency, respectively, at 1 GHz carrier, which corresponds to only 1.4 fs rms absolute timing jitter [1 Hz - 100 kHz] [2]. With DDS-based electronics, low-noise and agile microwave frequency synthesizer was also realized [3]. This new class of photonic signal generator will be suitable for master oscillators in various accelerator-based light sources.
[1] D. Kim et al., Opt. Lett. 44, 1068 (2019)
[2] D. Kwon et al., Opt. Lett. 42, 5186 (2017)
[3] J. Wei et al., Photon. Res. 6, 12 (2018)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP030  
About • paper received ※ 05 September 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 October 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP031 Timing Synchronization Activities for Drift-Free Operation of Ultrafast Electron Diffraction System at KAERI electron, timing, gun, detector 385
 
  • J. Shin, J. Kim
    KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  • I.H. Baek, Y.U. Jeong, H.W. Kim, K. Oang, S. Park
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: This work is funded by KAERI (Grant number: 525350-19)
Precise timing synchronization of an ultrafast electron diffraction facility is essential requirement for femtosecond resolution structure analysis. Recent studies of THz-based electron deflectors have enabled the timing drift measurement between ultrafast electrons and an optical pump beam with few femtosecond resolution [1]. In this work, we will introduce timing synchronization activities to suppress the drift of an electron beam. As timing drift of the electron beam originates from every sub-element, each timing drift contribution from RF transfer, RF-to-optical synchronization, and optical amplification is measured. Timing drift of RF transfer through coaxial cable, which exposed to temperature fluctuation, is actively stabilized from 2 ps to 50 fs by active feedback loop. Further additive drift from RF-to-optical synchronization is maintained below 100 fs. Also optical drift due to the regenerative amplifier, measured by optical correlator, is maintained below 20 fs over an hour. This work allows ultrafast electron diffraction system to operate with less drift correction procedure and increased user availability.
[1] H. Yang et al., "10-fs-level synchronization of photocathode laser with RF-oscillator for ultrafast electron and X-ray sources", Sci. Rep. 7, 39966 (2017).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP031  
About • paper received ※ 24 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP035 NIR Spectrometer for Bunch-Resolved, Non-Destructive Studies of Microbunching at European XFEL FEL, electron, bunching, free-electron-laser 392
 
  • S. Fahlström, M. Hamberg
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • C. Gerth, N.M. Lockmann, B. Steffen
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  At the European X-ray Free Electron Laser high brilliance femtosecond FEL radiation pulses are generated for user experiments. For this to be achieved electron bunches must be reliably produced within very tight tolerances. In order to investigate the presence of micro-bunching, i.e. charge density variation along the electron bunch with features in the micron range, a prism-based NIR spectrometer with an InGaAs sensor, sensitive in the wavelength range 900 nm to 1700 nm was installed. The spectrometer utilizes diffraction radiation (DR) generated at electron beam energies of up to 17.5 GeV. The MHz repetition rate needed for bunch resolved measurements is made possible by the KALYPSO line detector system, providing a read-out rate of up to 2.7 MHz. We present the first findings from commissioning of the NIR spectrometer, and measurements on the impact of the laser heater system for various bunch compression settings, in terms of amplitude and bunch-to-bunch variance of the NIR spectra as well as FEL pulse energy.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP035  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP041 Feasibility of Single-Shot Microbunching Diagnostics for a Pre-Bunched Beam at 266 nm electron, bunching, radiation, diagnostics 408
 
  • A.H. Lumpkin
    AAI/ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • D.W. Rule
    Private Address, Silver Spring, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Co-propagating a relativistic electron beam and a high-power laser pulse through a short undulator (modulator) provides an energy modulation which can be converted to a periodic longitudinal density modulation (or microbunching) via the R56 term of a chicane. Such pre-bunching of a beam at the resonant wavelength and the harmonics of a subsequent free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier seeds the process and results in improved gain. We describe potential characterizations of the resulting microbunched electron beams using coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) imaging techniques for transverse size (50 micron), divergence (sub-mrad), trajectory angle (0.1 mrad), spectrum (few nm), and pulse length (sub-ps). The transverse spatial alignment is provided with near-field imaging and the angular alignment is done with far-field imaging and two-foil COTR interferometry (COTRI). Analytical model results for a 266-nm wavelength COTRI case with a 10% microbunching fraction will be presented. COTR gains of 7 million were calculated for an initial charge of 300 pC which enables splitting the optical signal for single-shot measurements of all the cited parameters.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP041  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP046 The European XFEL Photocathode Laser FEL, cathode, electron, controls 423
 
  • L. Winkelmann, A. Choudhuri, U. Grosse-Wortmann, I. Hartl, C. Li, C. Mohr, J. Müller, F. Peters, S. Pfeiffer, S.H. Salman
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  We present the Yb:fiber, Nd:YVO4 laser used to generate electrons from the RF photocathode gun at the European XFEL. The laser provides deep UV output pulses in 600 µs bursts with variable internal repetition rate (564 kHz to 4.5 MHz). Due to its robust architecture (mode-locked and synchronized fiber oscillator, Yb:fiber amplifiers and Nd:YVO4 gain blocks), the laser has operated with >99% uptime since January 2017. Using this laser, the XFEL reported energies of 17.5 GeV in July 2018, and simultaneous multi-mJ lasing in its three SASE beamlines. The laser offers two parallel outputs (1064 nm) with single pulse energies of >100 µJ and 11 ps width (FWHM). One output is converted to deep UV with efficiencies > 25%, and the second is used as a laser heater to reduce microbunching instabilities to increase SASE efficiency. Several state-of-art laser controls were implemented, including feed-forward algorithm to flatten electron charge along the bunch, active beam stabilization with < ±10 µm jitter at the photocathode, state machines for hands-off end-user operation, and temporal pulse synchronization and drift compensation to the timing jigger of the electron bunches to less than 45 fs.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP046  
About • paper received ※ 23 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP047 Update on the Photocathode Lifetime at FLASH and European XFEL cathode, FEL, gun, operation 427
 
  • S. Lederer, F. Brinker, S. Schreiber
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • L. Monaco, D. Sertore
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
 
  The photoinjectors of FLASH and the European XFEL at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) are operated by laser driven RF-guns. In both facilities Cs2Te photocathodes are successfully used. In this paper we give an update on the lifetime, quantum efficiency (QE) and dark current of the photocathodes used over the last years. At FLASH cathode #73.3 was operated for a record lifetime of 1413 days and was replaced December 2018 by cathode #105.2. At the European XFEL cathode #680.1 is in operation since December 2015, for 1356 days up to now.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP047  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP048 FLASH Photoinjector Laser Systems electron, operation, free-electron-laser, cathode 430
 
  • S. Schreiber, C. Grün, K. Klose, J. Rönsch-Schulenburg, B. Steffen
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The free-electron laser facility FLASH at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) operates two undulator beamlines simultaneously for FEL operation and a third for plasma acceleration experiments (FLASHForward). The L-band superconducting technology allows accelerating fields of up to 0.8 ms in length at a repetition rate of 10 Hz (burst mode). A fast kicker-septum system picks one part of the 1 MHz electron bunch train and kicks it to the second beamline such that two beamlines are operated simultaneously with the full repetition rate of 10 Hz. The photoinjector operates three laser systems. They have different pulse durations and transverse shapes and are chosen to serve best for the given user experiment in terms of electron bunch charge, bunch compression, and bunch pattern. It is also possible to operate the laser systems on the same beamline to provide specific double pulses for certain type of experiments.  
poster icon Poster WEP048 [2.642 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP048  
About • paper received ※ 26 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP050 Status of Chirped Pulse Laser Shaping for the PITZ Photoinjector electron, flattop, optics, simulation 437
 
  • C. Koschitzki, Y. Chen, J.D. Good, M. Groß, M. Krasilnikov, G. Loisch, R. Niemczyk, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • E. Khazanov, S. Mironov
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
  • T. Lang, L. Winkelmann
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The beam emittance at FEL facilities like European XFEL and FLASH is dominated by the emittance sources in the electron injector. Shaping of the laser pulses that are employed to release electrons from the cathode of a photo injector, was shown in theory to allow improved beam emittance starting from the electron emission process. At the photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) a laser system capable of controlling the temporal and spatial profile of laser pulses is being set up to demonstrate the predicted emittance reduction experimentally. The presentation will show its current capabilities to provide temporally and spatially shaped laser pulses from a pulse shaper operating at infrared (IR) wavelengths. Furthermore, results from a shape preserving conversion into fourth harmonic ultra-violet (UV), as needed for the photo emission process, will be presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP050  
About • paper received ※ 21 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 17 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP051 PITZ Experimental Optimization for the Aimed Cathode Gradient of a Superconducting CW RF Gun emittance, gun, cathode, SRF 440
 
  • M. Krasilnikov, P. Boonpornprasert, Y. Chen, G.Z. Georgiev, J.D. Good, M. Groß, P.W. Huang, I.I. Isaev, C. Koschitzki, S. Lal, X. Li, O. Lishilin, G. Loisch, D. Melkumyan, R. Niemczyk, A. Oppelt, H.J. Qian, H. Shaker, G. Shu, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • M. Dohlus, E. Vogel
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  A continuous wave (CW) mode operation of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) is under considerations for a future upgrade. Therefore, a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) CW gun is under experimental development at DESY in Hamburg. Beam dynamics simulations for this setup have been done assuming 100 pC bunch charge and a maximum electric field at the photocathode of 40 MV/m. Experimental studies for these parameters using a normal conducting RF photogun have been performed at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ). The beam transverse emittance was minimized by optimizing the main photo injector parameters in order to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electron beams with a beam quality required for successful CW operation of the European XFEL for conditions similar to the SRF gun setup.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP051  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP052 Simulation Studies on the Saturated Emission at PITZ space-charge, gun, simulation, cathode 444
 
  • X. Li, P. Boonpornprasert, Y. Chen, J.D. Good, M. Groß, I.I. Isaev, C. Koschitzki, M. Krasilnikov, S. Lal, O. Lishilin, G. Loisch, D. Melkumyan, R. Niemczyk, A. Oppelt, H.J. Qian, H. Shaker, G. Shu, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
 
  In this paper we report our consideration and simulation on the space charge dominated emission in the L-band photocathode RF gun at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ). It has been found that the emission curve, which relates the extracted and accelerated bunch charge after the gun to the laser energy, doesn’t agree very well with Astra simulations when the emission is nearly or fully saturated. Previous studies with a core-halo model for a better fit of the experimentally measured laser transverse profile as well as with an improved transient emission model have resulted in a better agreement between experimental data and simulation. A 3D FFT space charge solver including mirror charge and binned energy/momentum has been built, which also allows more emission mechanisms to be included in the future. In this paper, the energy spread during emission was preliminarily analyzed. Experimentally measured emission curves were compared with simulation, showing the effect of the inhomogeneity of the laser on the emission and beam parameters.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP052  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP053 Development of a Multialkali Antimonide Photocathode at INFN LASA cathode, gun, site, electron 448
 
  • S.K. Mohanty
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • G. Guerini Rocco, C. Pagani
    Università degli Studi di Milano & INFN, Segrate, Italy
  • P. Michelato, L. Monaco, D. Sertore
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
 
  Owing to their excellent properties including high quantum efficiency (QE), low emittance, good lifetime and fast response, alkali antimonides photocathodes has been considered as one of the eminent candidates for the electron source of energy recovery linacs (ERL) and free electron lasers (FEL). Nevertheless, their sensitivity to vacuum condition requires specific R&D before they can operate in a RF Gun. For this reason, we have started to develop specifically K-Cs-Sb based multialkali photocathodes at INFN LASA. The primary goal is to develop a stable and reproducible alkali antimonide films on INFN plugs and test them in the photoinjector test facility PITZ at DESY Zeuthen. In this report, we present and discuss about the results so far obtained on KCsSb material and the status of the new preparation system specifically designed for these sensitive materials.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP053  
About • paper received ※ 08 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP058 Drive Laser Temporal Shaping Techniques for Shanghai Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser electron, FEL, cathode, flattop 466
 
  • X.T. Wang, T. Lan, M. Zhang, W.Y. Zhang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • L. Feng, B. Liu
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • C.L. Li
    Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  The design of Shanghai soft X-ray free electron laser (SXFEL) is based on laser driven photocathode, which can provide emittance <2.0 mm’mrad with 500 pC charge. The temporal shape of drive laser has significant influence on the electron beam emittance and brightness. This paper presents the transport line of drive laser system and the temporal shaping techniques for SXFEL. This drive laser produces 8 picosecond 266nm ultraviolet pulses with repetition rate 10Hz. A transverse deflecting cavity was used for indirectly characterizing the laser pulse temporal structure. Here we present the drive laser system with its temporal shaping method, and measurement results.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP058  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP059 Characterizing a Coherent Electron Source Extracted From a Cold Atom Trap electron, emittance, cavity, controls 469
 
  • H. Luo, P.X. Chu, J. Guo, T. Liu, Y.X. Xu, X. Zhao
    SWUST, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China
  • X.H. Li, Q.H. Zhou
    Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
  • K. Wang
    USTC, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11875227.
In order to generate a fully coherent free electron laser (FEL) within a compact system, one approach is to interact a coherent electron bunch with a high power laser operating in the quantum FEL regime. The coherent electron source is obtained by ionizing the Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The qualities of the electron source will have direct effects on the brightness, coherence, and line width of the free electron laser. A high quality ultra-cold electron source is obtained by carefully optimizing the extraction electrode structure, the acceleration and focusing system as well as the MOT. Through parameter optimization, a coherent electron source with a temperature lower than 10 K is obtained. Details of the optimization and the characteristics of the coherent electron source are reported in this paper.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP059  
About • paper received ※ 24 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 10 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP062 Test of Cs2Te Thickness on Cathode Performance at PITZ cathode, emittance, gun, FEL 473
 
  • P.W. Huang
    TUB, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • Y. Chen, M. Groß, I.I. Isaev, P. Kitisri, C. Koschitzki, M. Krasilnikov, S. Lal, X. Li, O. Lishilin, D. Melkumyan, R. Niemczyk, A. Oppelt, H.J. Qian, H. Shaker, G. Shu, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko, T. Weilbach
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • A. Grigoryan
    CANDLE, Yerevan, Armenia
  • S. Lederer
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • P. Michelato, L. Monaco, D. Sertore
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
 
  Cesium telluride is a widely used cathode in photo injectors, and its performance is one of the keys for not only emittance but also reliable operation. Over the years lots of experiences with Cs2Te photocathodes produced with the same recipe and thickness were gained at the DESY photo injectors, but cathode performance dependence on the cathode layer thickness were not investigated. In this paper, we test fresh Cs2Te cathodes with different thickness at the Photo Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ). The QE and thermal emittance of these cathodes inside the high gradient RF gun will be compared. Besides, the injector emittance under the operation conditions of the XFEL will also be measured with these cathodes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP062  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP064 Performance of S-Band Photocathode RF Gun With Coaxial Coupler gun, electron, FEL, cathode 481
 
  • J.H. Hong, J.H. Han, C.-K. Min
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  To improve the characteristics of electron beams, new S-band photocathode RF gun with a coaxial coupler has been developed and fabricated at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). This new RF gun is improved the field symmetry inside the cavity cell by applying the coaxial coupler, and the cooling performance by improving the cooling lines. The RF gun is installed in the injector test facility (ITF) for high power RF test. This paper reports the recent results on the RF conditioning process and the beam tests of the RF gun with high power RF at ITF. We present and discuss the measurement results of the basic beam parameters.  
poster icon Poster WEP064 [0.784 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP064  
About • paper received ※ 24 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP080 ROSA: Reconstruction of Spectrogram Autocorrelation for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron Lasers radiation, FEL, electron, free-electron-laser 506
 
  • S. Serkez, G. Geloni, N. Gerasimova
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • O. Gorobtsov
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • B. Sobko
    LNU, Lviv, Ukraine
 
  X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have opened new avenues in photon science, providing coherent X-ray radiation pulses orders of magnitude brighter and shorter than previously possible. The emerging concept of "beam by design" in FEL accelerator physics aims for accurate manipulation of the electron beam to tailor spectral and temporal properties of radiation for specific experimental purposes, such as X-ray pump/X-ray probe and multiple wavelength experiments. A cost-efficient method to extract information on longitudinal Wigner distribution function of emitted FEL pulses is proposed. It requires only an ensemble of measured FEL spectra.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP080  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP086 Capabilities of Terahertz Super-Radiance from Electron Bunches Moving in Micro-Undulators undulator, electron, radiation, GUI 517
 
  • N. Balal, V.L. Bratman, A. Friedman, Yu. Lurie
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
  • V.L. Bratman
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Israeli Ministry of Science, Technology and Space and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant No. 16-02-00794.
An available frequency range of coherent radiation from ps bunches with high charge and moderate particle energy significantly enhances if one uses a micro-undulator with a high transverse field. Such an undulator can be implemented by redistributing a strong uniform magnetic field by a helical ferromagnetic or copper insertion. According to simulations and experiments with prototypes, a steel helix with a period of (8-10) mm and an inner diameter of (1.5-2) mm inserted in the 3T-field of solenoid can provide an undulator field with an amplitude of 0.6 T. Using a hybrid system with a permanently magnetized structure can increase this value up to 1.1 T. The necessary steel helices can be manufactured on the machine, assembled from steel wires, formed from powder, or 3D - printed. Simulations based on the WB3D code demonstrate that using such undulators with the length of (30-40) cm enable single-mode super-radiance from bunches with energy of 6 MeV, charge of 1 nC and duration of 2 ps moving in an over-sized waveguide in frequency range of 3-5 THz. The calculated efficiency of such process is (2-4)% that many times exceeds efficiency for short bunches of the same initial density.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP086  
About • paper received ※ 14 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP100 Conceptual Design of a Permanent Magnet Undulator for Fast Pulse-to-Pulse Polarization Switching in an FEL undulator, polarization, electron, FEL 545
 
  • T.Y. Chung, C.-S. Hwang
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
 
  In this paper, we propose the design of an undulator to alter polarization at a fast frequency and the energy spectrum pulse-to-pulse in free-electron lasers (FELs). A fast time varying magnetic field generated in an undulator can alter characteristic light features. An electromagnetic (EM) and permanent magnet (PM) type undulator provides typically a magnetic field switching frequency below 100 Hz. Inductance and heating issues from coils limit the performance for the EM type and favor small magnetic fields and longer periods and for the PM type, strong magnetic forces between magnet arrays create undesired relative motion. In this paper, we discuss these issues and propose an undulator made of Halbach cylinders with rotating magnet arrays to switch the magnetic fields. Concept, magnet structure and performance are discussed in this note.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP100  
About • paper received ※ 30 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP104 A High-Power, High-Repetition Rate THz Source for LCLS-II Pump-Probe Experiments wiggler, radiation, FEL, injection 556
 
  • Z. Zhang, A.S. Fisher, M.C. Hoffmann, Z. Huang, B.T. Jacobson, P.S. Kirchmann, W.S. Lee, A. Lindenberg, E.A. Nanni, R.W. Schoenlein
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • S. Sasaki, J.Z. Xu
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
 
  Experiments using a THz pump and an x-ray probe at an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility like LCLS-II require frequency-tunable (3 to 20 THz), narrow bandwidth ( ∼ 10\%), carrier-envelope-phase-stable THz pulses that produce high fields (>1MV/cm) at the repetition rate of the x rays and well synchronized with them. In this paper, we study a two-bunch scheme to generate THz radiation at LCLS-II: the first bunch produces THz radiation in a permanent-magnet or electromagnet wiggler immediately following the LCLS-II undulator that produces X-rays from the second bunch. The initial time delay between the two bunches is optimized to compensate for the path difference in transport. We describe the two-bunch beam dynamics, the THz wiggler and radiation, as well as the transport system bringing the THz pulses from the wiggler to the experimental hall.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP104  
About • paper received ※ 23 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 17 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THA04 Ultrafast Magnetisation Dynamics at the Low-Fluence Limit Supported by External Magnetic Fields scattering, radiation, FEL, electron 574
 
  • M. Riepp, K. Bagschik, T. Golz, G. Grübel, L. Müller, A. Philippi-Kobs, W.R. Roseker, R. Rysov, N. Stojanovic, M. Walther
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • F. Capotondi, M. Kiskinova, D. Naumenko, E. Pedersoli
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • R. Frömter, H.P. Oepen
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  We report on ultrafast magnetisation dynamics in ferro-magnetic cobalt/platinum multilayers upon pumping by near and mid to far infrared radiation, utilizing sub-100 femtosecond free-electron laser pulses. The evolution of the excited magnetic state is studied on femtosecond timescales with nanometre spatial resolution and element selectivity, employing time-resolved magnetic small-angle X-ray scattering. The obtained results contribute to the ongoing discussion to what extent either coupling of the electromagnetic field or rather quasi-instantaneous heating of the electron-system is the driving force for phenomena like ultrafast demagnetization or all-optical helicity-dependent switching.  
slides icon Slides THA04 [4.980 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THA04  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 19 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THB04 Longitudinal Phase Space Study on Injector Beam of High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL linac, electron, cavity, bunching 584
 
  • Q. Gu
    SSRF, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • Z. Wang
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  The longitudinal phase space of the high repetition rate injector beam usually twisted and deteriorated by the space charge force. It causes the correlated energy spread and the local chirp within the beam, which could not compensated by the harmonic correction. As a consequence of this problem, one could not get ideal beam with a peak current more than kiloamperes. In this paper several approaches have been studied to relieve this effect and get the well compressed beam for the lasing.  
slides icon Slides THB04 [3.151 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THB04  
About • paper received ※ 26 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 16 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP010 Simple and Robust Free Electron Laser Doubler FEL, electron, septum, undulator 609
 
  • S. Di Mitri, G. De Ninno, R. Fabris, S. Spampinati
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • G. De Ninno
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia
  • N. Thompson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • N. Thompson
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This work has received funding by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 777431.
We present the design of a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) doubler suitable for the simultaneous operation of two FEL lines. The doubler relies on the physical selection of two longitudinal portions of an electron bunch at low energy, and on their spatial separation at high energy. Since the two electron beamlets are naturally synchronized, FEL pump-FEL probe experiments are enabled when the two photon pulses are sent to the same experimental station. The proposed solution offers improved flexibility of operation w.r.t. existing two-pulse, two-color FEL schemes, and allows for independent control of the color, timing, intensity and angle of incidence of the radiation pulses at the user end station. Detailed numerical simulations demonstrate its feasibility at the FERMI FEL facility.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP010  
About • paper received ※ 29 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 12 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP016 Study of Microbunching Instability in SHINE Linac bunching, linac, simulation, electron 629
 
  • D. Huang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • D. Gu
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • M. Zhang
    Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  The SHINE project in China aims at the next generation high repetation rate and high power hard X-ray free electron laser facility. The high quality electron beam is thus requested in the linac to generate such a high quality FEL lasing. As the prerequisite, the microbuncing instability introduced by the nonlinear effects such as the LSC, CSR and wakefields in the bunch compressing process must be taken care of, otherwise the electron beam will not meet the requirements of lasing. In this article, the microbunching effects including the gain of the instability in the linac of SHINE are estimated, and several ways for the control of the instability are proposed.  
poster icon Poster THP016 [0.536 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP016  
About • paper received ※ 24 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP018 Transverse Deflecting Structure Dynamics for Time-Resolved Machine Studies of Shine electron, FEL, cavity, free-electron-laser 632
 
  • J.W. Yan, H.X. Deng, B. Liu, D. Wang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • H.X. Deng, B. Liu, D. Wang
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China (11775293), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0401900) and Ten Thousand Talent Program.
The transverse deflecting structure (TDS) has been widely used in modern free electron laser facilities for the longitudinal phase space diagnostics of electron beams. As the first hard x-ray free electron laser in China, the SHINE is designed to deliver photons with a repetition rate up to 1 MHz. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics study of the X-band TDS behind the undulator of SHINE. In order to prevent the screen from being damaged by electron bunches with a high repetition rate, the phase of the transverse deflecting cavity is designed to deviate from zero, and only those electron bunches that are kicked by the transverse deflecting cavity are sent to the screen. In addition, the evolutionary algorithm is introduced to optimize the lattice of the TDS line to reach the highest possible resolution.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP018  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP020 Microbunching Enhancement by Adiabatic Trapping bunching, storage-ring, emittance, injection 635
 
  • X.J. Deng, W.-H. Huang, C.-X. Tang
    TUB, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • A. Chao
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Storage ring based concept called steady-state microbunching was proposed years ago for high average power narrowband coherent radiation generation. There are now active efforts on-going by the SSMB collaboration established among Tsinghua University and several other institutes. In this paper we study the particle trap and filamentation process of beam in RF or Micro Bucket which is useful for understanding the injection beam dynamics of SSMB. One remarkable result is the steady-state current distribution after full filamentation has little dependence on the bucket height as long as it is several times larger than the energy spread. A discrete increase of bucket height can boost the bunching, with the sacrifice of emittance growth. An adiabatic change of bucket height from a smaller value to the final desired value is then proposed to boost the bunching while preserving the longitudinal emittance.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP020  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP022 A General Optimization Method for High Harmonic Generation Beamline electron, free-electron-laser, radiation, coupling 638
 
  • Y. Zhang, X.J. Deng, W.-H. Huang, Z. Pan, C.-X. Tang
    TUB, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Shorter bunches produce a more coherent radiation and contain higher harmonic components. Here, based on transverse and longitudinal phase space coupling, a general method for analyzing the production of very short beam and searching for compression beamline is presented. With this method, several beamlines are found and optimized. The electron beam can be compressed to tens of nanometers, generating coherent high harmonic radiation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP022  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP030 An Updated Design of the NSRRC Seeded VUV Free Electron Laser Test Facility undulator, FEL, linac, radiation 651
 
  • W.K. Lau, C.K. Chan, C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chang, L.-H. Chang, C.H. Chen, M.C. Chou, P.J. Chou, F.Z. Hsiao, K.T. Hsu, H.P. Hsueh, K.H. Hu, C.-S. Hwang, J.-Y. Hwang, J.C. Jan, C.K. Kuan, A.P. Lee, M.-C. Lin, G.-H. Luo, K.L. Tsai
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  • A. Chao, J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • S.Y. Teng
    NTHU, Hsinchu, Taiwan
 
  In this report, we present an updated design of the facility which is a 200 nm seeded, HGHG FEL driven by a 250 MeV high brightness electron linac system with dogleg bunch compressor for generation of ultrashort intense coherent radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet region. It employs a 10-periods helical undulator for enhancement of beam energy modulation and a helical undulator of 20 mm period length as the radiator (i.e. THU20) to produce hundreds of megawatts radiation with wavelength as short as 66.7 nm. An optional planar undulator can be added to generate odd harmonics (e.g. 22.2 nm, 13.3 nm etc.) of the fundamental. The facility layout and expected FEL output performance is reported.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP030  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP041 Interaction of Powerful Electro-Magnetic Fields With Bragg Reflectors simulation, FEL, experiment, electron 673
 
  • I. Bahns, W. Hillert, P. Rauer, J. Roßbach
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • H. Sinn
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
 
  Funding: supported by BMBF FKZ 05K16GU4
The interaction of an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) with a Bragg Reflector can cause a change of the lattice constant, which has a direct influence on the stability of the reflection conditions [1] and can also excite modes of vibration [2]. The dynamical thermoelastic effects of the photon-matter-interaction are simulated with a finite-element-method (FEM) using the assumptions of continuums mechanics. To compare the simulation results with measured signals, a Michelson interferometer with ultrafast photodiodes (risetime <175ps, bandwith >2GHz) has been built up. To test the experimental setup in an in-house environment a pulsed UV laser is used to introduce a temporal displacement field in a silicon crystal created by about 0.26µJ of absorbed energy. The measured signal is in agreement with the FEM simulation and has shown that if averaging over thousands of pulses is applied a resolution <0.5pm is feasible. This makes this experimental setup useful to investigate the X-ray-matter-interaction of Bragg reflectors at modern X-ray facilities.
[1] S. Stoupin et al., Physical Review B 86.5 (2012): 054301.
[2] B. Yang, S. Wang and J. Wu, J. Synchrotron Rad. (2018) 25, 166-176.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP041  
About • paper received ※ 23 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 31 October 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP044 The Simulation Study for Single and Multi Turn ERL Based EUV FEL simulation, electron, FEL, linac 677
 
  • K.M. Nam, G.S. Yun
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • Y.W. Parc
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Photolithography technology is the core part of the semiconductor manufacturing process. It has required light having stronger power for higher throughput. ERL based EUV FEL is emerging as a next generation EUV source which can produce the light over 10 kW. In this study, first, EUV-FEL design, which is based on single turn, is represented. It accelerates 40 pC electron beam to 600 MeV and produces EUV, whose wavelength and power are 13.5 nm and 37 kW. Second, multiturn based design is represented. It improved compactness to make it more suitable for industrial use. As a result, the electron beam was able to obtain the kinetic energy and circulate, and the size was reduced to about half without reducing the power greatly. This study is expected to increase the practical industrialization potential of ERL-based photolithography.  
poster icon Poster THP044 [0.584 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP044  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP047 Laser-Driven Compact Free Electron Laser Development at ELI-Beamlines electron, FEL, undulator, photon 680
 
  • A.Y. Molodozhentsev
    Czech Republic Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Prague, Czech Republic
  • J.T. Green, J. Hawke, M. Kaur, D. Kocon, G. Korn, K.O. Kruchinin
    ELI-BEAMS, Prague, Czech Republic
  • A.R. Maier
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Advanced research using high-intensity laser produced photons and particles (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16019/0000789) from the European Regional Development Fund.
The ELI-Beamlines Centre, located near Prague (Czech Republic) is an international user facility for fundamental and applied research. Using the optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) technique, the ELI-Beamlines laser system will provide the laser pulse energy up to 10 Joules with the repetition rate up to 25 Hz. Combination of new laser development with constant improvement of the LWFA electron beam parameters has great potential in future development of the compact high repetition rate Free Electron Laser. The LWFA-driven FEL project, called "LUIS", is currently under preparation at ELI-Beamlines in collaboration with the University of Hamburg. The goal of the project is the improvement of the electron beam parameters in order to demonstrate the amplification and saturation of the SASE-FEL photon power in a single unit of the FEL undulator. A successful realization of the LUIS project will open a way to a next generation of laser-driven X-FELs. An overview of the LUIS project including design features and a description of all instrumentations used to characterize the laser, plasma, electron beam, photon generation will be presented in frame of this report.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP047  
About • paper received ※ 15 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 16 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP048 Progress Towards Laser Plasma Electron Based Free Electron Laser on COXINEL electron, plasma, undulator, FEL 684
 
  • M.-E. Couprie, T. André, F. Blache, F. Bouvet, F. Briquez, Y. Dietrich, J.P. Duval, M. El Ajjouri, A. Ghaith, C. Herbeaux, N. Hubert, M. Khojoyan, C.A. Kitégi, M. Labat, N. Leclercq, A. Lestrade, A. Loulergue, O. Marcouillé, F. Marteau, D. Oumbarek Espinos, P. Rommeluère, M. Sebdaoui, K.T. Tavakoli, M. Valléau
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • I.A. Andriyash, V. Malka, S. Smartzev
    Weizmann Institute of Science, Physics, Rehovot, Israel
  • C. Benabderrahmane
    ESRF, Grenoble, France
  • S. Bielawski, C. Evain, E. Roussel, C. Szwaj
    PhLAM/CERLA, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France
  • S. Corde, J. Gautier, J.-P. Goddet, O.S. Kononenko, G. Lambert, K. Ta Phuoc, A. Tafzi, C. Thaury
    LOA, Palaiseau, France
 
  Laser plasma acceleration (LPA) with up to several GeV beam in very short distance appears very promising. The Free Electron Laser (FEL), though very challenging, can be viewed as a qualifying application of these new emerging LPAs. The energy spread and divergence, larger than from conventional accelerators used for FEL, have to be manipulated to fulfil the FEL requirements. On the test experiment COXINEL (ERC340015), the beam is controlled in a manipulation [1,2] line, using permanent magnet quadrupoles of variable strength [3] for emittance handing and a decompression chicane equipped with a slit for the energy selection, enabling FEL amplification for baseline reference parameters [2]. The electron position and dispersion are independently adjusted [4]. The measured spontaneous emission radiated by a 2 m long 18 mm period cryo-ready undulator exhibits the typical undulator spatio-spectral pattern, in agreement with the modelling of the electron beam travelling along the line and of the afferent photon generation. The wavelength is easily tuned with undulator gap variation. A wavelength stability of 2.6% is achieved. The undulator linewidth can be controlled.
[1] A. Loulergue et al., New J. Phys. 17 023028 (2015)
[2] M. E. Couprie et al., PPCF 58, 3 (2016)
[3] F. Marteau et al., APL 111, 253503 (2017)
[4] T. André et al., Nature Comm. 1334 (2018)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP048  
About • paper received ※ 13 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 16 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP051 Generating Trains of Attosecond Pulses with a Free-Electron Laser FEL, electron, radiation, free-electron-laser 692
 
  • S. Serkez, G. Geloni
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • M.H. Cho, H.-S. Kang, G. Kim, J.H. Ko, C.-K. Min, I.H. Nam, C.H. Shim
    PAL, Pohang, Republic of Korea
  • F.-J. Decker
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • J.H. Ko, C.H. Shim
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • Yu. Shvyd’ko
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
 
  Recently, a Hard X-ray Self-Seeding setup was commissioned at PAL XFEL. Its main purpose is to increase the temporal coherence of FEL radiation in an active way. We report another application of this setup to generate trains of short sub-femtosecond pulses with linked phases. We discuss preliminary results of both experiment and corresponding simulations as well as indirect diagnostics of the radiation properties.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP051  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP054 Nanosecond Pulse Enhancement in Narrow Linewidth Cavity for Steady-State Microbunching cavity, simulation, optics, impedance 697
 
  • Q.H. Zhou
    Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.11875227.
In steady-state microbunching (SSMB), nanosecond laser pulse with megawatt average power is required. We build up a theoretic model to enhance such pulse in a narrow linewidth (e.g. kHz level) cavity for this demand, which shows that a mode-locked mechanism in frequency domain should be considered. Simulations indicate that such pulse can be enhanced sufficiently under this condition. And we also propose some experimental schematics to realize it.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP054  
About • paper received ※ 25 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 October 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP069 Observations on Microbunching of Electrons in Laser-Driven Plasma Accelerators and Free-Electron Lasers FEL, electron, bunching, experiment 722
 
  • A.H. Lumpkin
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • M. Downer, M. LaBerge
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
  • D.W. Rule
    Private Address, Silver Spring, USA
 
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics.
The periodic longitudinal density modulation of relativistic electrons at the resonant wavelength (microbunching) is a fundamental aspect of free-electron lasers (FELs). In one case, microbunching fractions reached 20% at saturation of a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL resulting in gains of 1 million at 530 nm [1]. In that experiment the z-dependent gain of coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) was also measured. In laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs), microbunching at visible wavelengths has also been recently reported as evidenced by significant COTR enhancements measured in near-field and far-field images on a single shot for the first time [2]. An analytical model for COTR interferometry (COTRI) addresses both cases. In the FEL, one identified microbunched transverse cores of 25-100 microns while in the LPA the reported transverse sizes at the exit of the LPA were a few microns. In the latter case, signal enhancements of nearly 100, 000 and extensive fringes out to 30 mrad in angle space were recorded. The broadband microbunching observed in the LPA case could act as a seed for a SASE FEL experiment with tunability in principle over the visible regime.
[1] A.H. Lumpkin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, No.23, 234801 (2002).
[2] A.H. Lumpkin, M. LaBerge, D.W. Rule et al., Proceedings of AAC18, (IEEE), (2019).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP069  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP073 Status Update for the High Gain High Efficiency TESSA-266 Experiment undulator, quadrupole, electron, experiment 730
 
  • Y. Park, D.K. Dang, P.E. Denham, P. Musumeci, N.S. Sudar
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  • R.B. Agustsson, T.J. Campese, I.I. Gadjev, A.Y. Murokh
    RadiaBeam, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • C.C. Hall, S.D. Webb
    RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • Y. Sun, A. Zholents
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: DOE grant No. DE-SC0009914 and DE-SC0018559
Tapering Enhanced Stimulated Superradiant Amplification (TESSA) allows to increase the efficiency of Free Electron Laser (FEL) based radiation generation from ~0.1% to 10% by using intense seed laser pulses, strongly tapered undulators and prebunched electron beams [1]. Initial results validating this method have already been obtained at 10 µm wavelength at Brookhaven National Laboratory [2]. We will present the design of an experiment to demonstrate the TESSA scheme at high gain and shorter wavelength (266 nm) using the APS injector linac at Argonne National Labor-atory (ANL) to obtain conversion efficiency of up to 10%. Undulator and focusing lattice design, as well as beam dynamics and diagnostics for this experiment will be discussed. An extension of the experiment to include the possibility of multi-bunch linac operation and an optical cavity around the undulator to operate in the TESSO regime will also be presented [3].
[1] J. Duris et al., New J. Phys. 17 063036 (2015)
[2] N Sudar et al., Physical review letters, 117, 174801 (2016)
[3] J. Duris et al., Physical Review Accelerators and Beams 21, 080705 (2018)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP073  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP074 FLASH: The Pioneering XUV and Soft X-Ray FEL User Facility FEL, electron, free-electron-laser, undulator 734
 
  • K. Honkavaara, S. Schreiber
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  FLASH, the free-electron laser (FEL) at DESY (Hamburg) started user operation in summer 2005. It delivers high peak and average brilliance XUV and soft X-ray FEL radiation to photon experiments. Nowadays, FLASH has a 1.25 GeV superconducting linac, and two undulator beamlines, which are operated simultaneously. This paper provides an overview of its evolution from a test facility for superconducting accelerator technology to a full-scale FEL user facility.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP074  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP079 Status and Perspectives of the FERMI FEL Facility (2019) FEL, electron, linac, free-electron-laser 742
 
  • L. Giannessi, E. Allaria, L. Badano, S. Bassanese, F. Bencivenga, C. Callegari, F. Capotondi, D. Castronovo, F. Cilento, P. Cinquegrana, M. Coreno, I. Cudin, G. D’Auria, M.B. Danailov, R. De Monte, G. De Ninno, P. Delgiusto, A.A. Demidovich, M. Di Fraia, S. Di Mitri, B. Diviacco, A. Fabris, R. Fabris, W.M. Fawley, M. Ferianis, L. Foglia, P. Furlan Radivo, G. Gaio, F. Gelmetti, F. Iazzourene, S. Krecic, G. Kurdi, M. Lonza, N. Mahne, M. Malvestuto, M. Manfredda, C. Masciovecchio, M. Milloch, R. Mincigrucci, N.S. Mirian, I. Nikolov, F.H. O’Shea, G. Penco, A. Perucchi, O. Plekan, M. Predonzani, K.C. Prince, E. Principi, L. Raimondi, P. Rebernik Ribič, F. Rossi, L. Rumiz, C. Scafuri, C. Serpico, N. Shafqat, P. Sigalotti, A. Simoncig, S. Spampinati, C. Spezzani, M. Svandrlik, M. Trovò, A. Vascotto, M. Veronese, R. Visintini, D. Zangrando, M. Zangrando
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
 
  FERMI is the seeded Free Electron Laser (FEL) user facility at the Elettra laboratory in Trieste, operating in the VUV to EUV and soft X-rays spectral range; the radiation produced by the seeded FEL is characterized by wavelength stability, low temporal jitter and longitudinal coherence in the range 100-4 nm. During 2018 a dedicated experiment has shown the potential of the Echo Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) scheme [1] to cover most of this spectral range with a single stage cascade [2]. Such a scheme, combined to an increment of the beam energy and of the accelerator performances, could extend the FERMI operating range toward the oxygen k-edge. With this perspective, we present the development plans under consideration for the next 3 to 5 years. These include an upgrade of the linac and of the existing FEL lines, consisting in the conversion of FEL-1 first, and FEL-2 successively, into EEHG seeded FELs.
[1] G. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 74801 (2009)
[2] P. Rebernik et al., Nature Photonics https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-019-0427-1
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP079  
About • paper received ※ 28 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP085 Status of Athos, the Soft X-Ray FEL Line of SwissFEL FEL, undulator, MMI, operation 753
 
  • R. Ganter, G. Aeppli, A. Al Haddad, J. Alex, C. Arrell, V.R. Arsov, S. Bettoni, C. Bostedt, H.-H. Braun, M. Calvi, T. Celcer, P. Craievich, R. Follath, F. Frei, N. Gaiffi, Z.G. Geng, C.H. Gough, M. Huppert, R. Ischebeck, H. Jöhri, P.N. Juranič, B. Keil, F. Löhl, F. Marcellini, G. Marinkovic, G.L. Orlandi, C. Ozkan Loch, M. Paraliev, L. Patthey, M. Pedrozzi, C. Pradervand, E. Prat, S. Reiche, T. Schietinger, T. Schmidt, K. Schnorr, C. Svetina, A. Trisorio, C. Vicario, D. Voulot, U.H. Wagner, A.C. Zandonella
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  The Athos line will cover the photon energy range from 250 to 1900 eV and will operate in parallel to the hard X-ray line Aramis of SwissFEL. The paper will describe the current layout of the Athos FEL line starting from the fast kicker magnet followed by the dogleg transfer line, the small linac and the 16 APPLE undulators. From there the photon beam passes through the photonics front end and the beamline optics before reaching the experimental stations AMO and FURKA. The focus of this contribution will be on the two bunch operation commissioning (two bunches in the same RF macropulse), which started in 2018, and the characterization of the major components like the APPLE X undulator UE38, the CHIC chicane and the dechirper. The Athos installation inside the tunnel is alternating with Aramis FEL user operation and the first lasing is planned for winter 2019 / 2020.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP085  
About • paper received ※ 30 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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THP086 Operation Modes of the SwissFEL Soft X-Ray Beamline Athos electron, undulator, FEL, free-electron-laser 757
 
  • S. Reiche, E. Ferrari, E. Prat, T. Schietinger
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  SwissFEL drives the two FEL beamlines Aramis and Athos, a hard and soft X-ray FEL, respectively. The layout of Athos extends from a simple SASE FEL beamline with the addition of delaying chicanes, external seeding and beam manipulation with wakefield sources (dechirper). It reserves also the space for a possible upgrade to self-seeding. This presentation gives an overview on the detailed layout enabling the unique operation modes of the Athos facility.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-THP086  
About • paper received ※ 23 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 16 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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FRA03 FLASH - Status and Upgrades electron, FEL, undulator, free-electron-laser 776
 
  • J. Rönsch-Schulenburg, K. Honkavaara, S. Schreiber, R. Treusch, M. Vogt
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  FLASH, the Free-Electron Laser at DESY in Hamburg was the first FEL user facility in the XUV and soft X-ray range. The superconducting RF technology allows to produce several thousand SASE pulses per second with a high peak and average brilliance. It developed to a user facility with a 1.25 GeV linear accelerator, two undulator beamlines running in parallel, and a third electron beamline containing the FLASHForward plasma wakefield experiment. Actual user operation and FEL research are discussed. New concepts and a redesign of the facility are developed to ensure that also in future FLASH will allow cutting-edge research. Upgrade plans are discussed in the contribution.  
slides icon Slides FRA03 [10.554 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-FRA03  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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