Photon Beamline Instrumentation and Undulators
Paper Title Page
WEP027 A Fast and Accurate Method to Shim Undulator Using Multi-Objective GA 378
 
  • L.G. Yan, L.J. Chen, D.R. Deng, P. Li
    CAEP/IAE, Mianyang, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant of 11505174, 11505173 and 11605190
GA (Genetic Algorithm) is one of the most excellent methods to search the optimal solution for a problem, which has been applied to solve various problems. It is hard to estimate shim applied on raw undulator precisely. There are many methods have been developed to solve the problem. In this proceeding, we proposed a fast and accurate method to conclude the shim using multi-objective GA. A multi-objective objective function was set, and multi-objective optimization was also implemented. The evolution time is reduced by setting optimal evolution parameters. To demonstrate the method, we also finished some test on a prototype undulator U38. As a result, it can be achieved only by shimming three times that all the parameters of trajectory center deviation, peak-to-peak error and phase error satisfied the requirements.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP027  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP067 Development and Commissioning of a Flip Coil System for Measuring Field Integrals 484
 
  • J.E. Baader
    UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
 
  Funding: CAPES grant numbers 88881.134183/2016-01; DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 in support of the LCLS-II project; and FAEPEX-UNICAMP grant number 519.292/94550-19.
Many techniques for measuring magnetic fields are available for accelerator magnets. In general, methods based upon moving wires are suitable for characterizing field harmonics, and first and second field integrals. The flip coil moving wire technique stands out due to simplicity, speed, precision, and accuracy. We aimed to develop a reliable, fast and precise flip coil system capable of characterizing field integrals in the two transverse axes. The coil was a single turn loop made of insulated beryllium copper wire. The width of the loop was 5 mm. The approach of measuring second field integrals by changing the coil’s width at one of the ends was analyzed and included in the system. High-performance motorized stages performed angular and transverse positioning of the coil, while manual stages were used to stretch the wire, execute fine adjustments in its transverse position, and change coil’s geometry. Initial tests with the Earth’s field and also with a reference magnet of 126 Gauss-centimeter (G.cm) demonstrated that the system achieves repeatability of 0.2 G.cm for a 60-cm long coil. This work was carried out for the LCLS-II project at SLAC.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP067  
About • paper received ※ 08 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP070 Influence of Radiation Exposure on the FEL Performance at FLASH 488
 
  • B. Faatz, M. Tischer, P. Vagin
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  FLASH has been operated as user facility for about 14 years. In this time, the total charge accelerated and transported through the FLASH1 undulator is around 35 Coulomb. Based on detailed monitoring of the radiation loss and reference measurements on degradation of the magnetic field of the undulator, we have performed simulations to study the change in FEL performance and first comparison of the simulations with the changes we observe during operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP070  
About • paper received ※ 07 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP072 Expected Radiation Properties of the Harmonic Afterburner at FLASH2 492
 
  • M. Mehrjoo, B. Faatz, G. Paraskaki, M. Tischer, P. Vagin
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  We discuss the afterburner option to upgrade the FLASH2 undulator line, at the FLASH facility in the Hamburg area, for delivering short wavelengths down to approximately 1.5 nm with variable polarization. This relatively straightforward upgrade enables us the study of the scientific cases in L- absorption edges of rare earth metals. The proposed afterburner setting with an energy upgrade to 1.35 GeV would potentially cover many of the community’s requests for the short wavelengths radiation and circular polarization. We also study the influence of reverse tapering on the radiation output. This contribution presents a series of simulations for the afterburner scheme and some of the technical choices made for implementation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP072  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 October 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP073 Experience With MCP-Based Photon Detector at FLASH2 495
 
  • S. Grunewald, E. Muller, E. Schneidmiller, K.I. Tiedtke, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • O.I. Brovko, A.Yu. Grebentsov, E. Syresin
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
 
  In this report we describe MCP-based radiation detector at FLASH2. Micro-channel plate (MCP) detects scattered radiation from a target (mesh). Use of different targets and geometrical positioning of the MCP plates provides control of photon flux on the detector. MCP detector covers the whole wavelength range of FLASH2 (from 2.x nm to 100 nm). Dynamic range spans from sub-nJ to mJ level (from spontaneous to saturation level). Relative accuracy of single-shot radiation pulse energy measurements in the exponential gain regime is about 1%. DAQ based software is under development which allows to perform cross-correlation of the SASE FEL performance with electron beam jitters. As a result, it is possible: (i) to organize efficient feedback for cancellation of machine jitters, and (ii) to use statistical techniques for characterization of SASE FEL radiation deriving such important quantities as gain curve (gain of the radiation pulse energy and its fluctuations along the undulator), radiation pulse duration, coherence time, and degree of transverse coherence. Relevant experimental results are presented in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP073  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP076 A Superconducting Undulator With Variable Polarization Direction for the European FEL 499
 
  • Y. Li
    EuXFEL, Hamburg, Germany
  • R. Rossmanith
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  In the SASE3 beam line at the European XFEL a planar undulator produces linearly polarized radiation. In order to obtain a circularly polarized radiation an afterburner will be installed to produce coherent radiation with variable polarization. Recently Argonne National Lab developed a super conductive undulator (called SCAPE) for a storage ring which allows to change polarization direction and field strength without moving mechanically the undulator parts. In this paper it is investigated if a similar device could be useful for an FEL. Such device is also a possible choice for the future undulator beam lines where circular and variable polarization are required.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP076  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 17 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP079 Effect of Heat Load on Cryo-Cooled Monochromators at the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser: Simulations and First Experimental Observations 502
 
  • I. Petrov, U. Boesenberg, M. Dommach, J. Eidam, J. Hallmann, K. Kazarian, C. Kim, W. Lu, A. Madsen, J. Möller, M. Reiser, L. Samoylova, R. Shayduk, H. Sinn, V. Sleziona, A. Zozulya
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • J.W.J. Anton, S.P. Kearney, D. Shu
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • X. Dong
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • X. Dong
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  European XFEL (EuXFEL) generates high-intensity ultra-short pulses at MHz repetition rate. At hard X-ray instruments, cryo-cooled silicon monochromators are used to reduce pulse bandwidth. Here, first experimental observations during commissioning of a cryo-cooled monochromator at Materials Imaging and Dynamics (MID) instrument are presented and compared with heat flow simulations. A thermal relaxation time is estimated and compared with arrival time interval between pulses. This provides the repetition rate tolerable for stable operation of monochromator.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP079  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP080 ROSA: Reconstruction of Spectrogram Autocorrelation for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron Lasers 506
 
  • S. Serkez, G. Geloni, N. Gerasimova
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • O. Gorobtsov
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • B. Sobko
    LNU, Lviv, Ukraine
 
  X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have opened new avenues in photon science, providing coherent X-ray radiation pulses orders of magnitude brighter and shorter than previously possible. The emerging concept of "beam by design" in FEL accelerator physics aims for accurate manipulation of the electron beam to tailor spectral and temporal properties of radiation for specific experimental purposes, such as X-ray pump/X-ray probe and multiple wavelength experiments. A cost-efficient method to extract information on longitudinal Wigner distribution function of emitted FEL pulses is proposed. It requires only an ensemble of measured FEL spectra.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP080  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP081 Design and Development of High-Speed Data Acquisition System and Online Data Processing with a Heterogeneous FPGA/GPU Architecture 510
 
  • M. Bawatna, J.-C. Deinert, O. Knodel, S. Kovalev
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • R.G. Spallek
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
 
  The superradiant THz sources at TELBE facility is based on the new class of accelerator-driven terahertz (THz) radiation sources that provide high repetition rates up to 13 MHz, and flexibility of tuning the THz pulse form. The THz pulses are used for the excitation of materials of interest, about two orders of magnitude higher than state-of-the-art tabletop sources. Time-resolved experiments can be performed with a time resolution down to 30 femtoseconds (fs) using the novel pulse-resolved Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. However, the increasing demands in improving the flexibility, data throughput, and speed of the DAQ systems motivate the integration of reconfigurable processing units close to the new detectors to accelerate the processing of tens of GigaBytes of data per second. In this paper, we introduce our online ultrafast DAQ system that uses a GPU platform for real-time image processing, and a custom high-performance FPGA board for interfacing the image sensors and provide a continuous data transfer.  
poster icon Poster WEP081 [0.830 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP081  
About • paper received ※ 18 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP085 Field Integral Measurements of DAVV Undulators and Future Measurement Plan 513
 
  • M. Gehlot, S.M. Khan, R. Khullar, G. Mishra
    Devi Ahilya University, Indore, India
  • J. Hussain
    Department of Applied Physics, UIT, Bhopal, India
  • F. Trillaud
    UNAM, México, D.F., Mexico
 
  Funding: This work is supported by SERB-DST grant EMR/2014/00120 and financial support from UGC [F.15-1/2014-15/PDFWM-2014-15-GE-MAD-26801(SA-II)], Delhi and DGAPA of UNAM, fund PAPIIT TA100617
The Insertion device development and Application (IddA) laboratory of Devi Ahilya University, Indore, India has ongoing activities on undulator design and development. In this paper, we analyze the field integral properties of the two DAVV undulator. The first is the IddA U20 prototype NdFeB-cobalt steel hybrid in house designed device of 20 mm period length with twenty five periods. The uniform gap variable hybrid undulator provides magnetic flux density (in rms) from 2400 G to 500 G in the 10 mm to 20 mm gap range. The second is the NdFeB based U50II undulator of 50 mm period length with 20 number of periods. Hall probe results are described. A short description of the measurement plan of the undulator on the pulsed wire bench and stretched wire bench is described.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP085  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP086 Capabilities of Terahertz Super-Radiance from Electron Bunches Moving in Micro-Undulators 517
 
  • N. Balal, V.L. Bratman, A. Friedman, Yu. Lurie
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
  • V.L. Bratman
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Israeli Ministry of Science, Technology and Space and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant No. 16-02-00794.
An available frequency range of coherent radiation from ps bunches with high charge and moderate particle energy significantly enhances if one uses a micro-undulator with a high transverse field. Such an undulator can be implemented by redistributing a strong uniform magnetic field by a helical ferromagnetic or copper insertion. According to simulations and experiments with prototypes, a steel helix with a period of (8-10) mm and an inner diameter of (1.5-2) mm inserted in the 3T-field of solenoid can provide an undulator field with an amplitude of 0.6 T. Using a hybrid system with a permanently magnetized structure can increase this value up to 1.1 T. The necessary steel helices can be manufactured on the machine, assembled from steel wires, formed from powder, or 3D - printed. Simulations based on the WB3D code demonstrate that using such undulators with the length of (30-40) cm enable single-mode super-radiance from bunches with energy of 6 MeV, charge of 1 nC and duration of 2 ps moving in an over-sized waveguide in frequency range of 3-5 THz. The calculated efficiency of such process is (2-4)% that many times exceeds efficiency for short bunches of the same initial density.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP086  
About • paper received ※ 14 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP089 Pulse Energy Measurement at the SXFEL 521
 
  • Z.P. Liu, H.X. Deng, C. Feng, B. Liu, D. Wang, L.Y. Yu
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  The test facility is going to generate 8.8 nm FEL radiation using an 840 MeV electron linac passing through the two-stage cascaded HGHG-HGHG or EEHG-HGHG (high-gain harmonic generation, echo-enabled harmonic generation) scheme. Several methods have been developed to measure the power of pulse. The responsivity of silicon photodiode having no loss in the entrance window. Silicon photodiode reach saturates at the SXFEL. In this work, we simulated the attenuator transmittance for different thicknesses. We also show the preparations of the experiment results at the SXFEL .  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP089  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP092 Spare Undulator Production for PAL-XFEL HX1 Beamline 524
 
  • J.H. Han, Y.G. Jung, D.E. Kim, S.J. Lee
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  In the PAL-XFEL hard X-ray beamline, 20 undulator segments with a 26 mm period and a 5 m length are installed and operated for XFEL user service. One spare undulator was manufactured in December 2018. The magnetic measurements and tuning was carried out recently. We report the measurement and tuning results.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP092  
About • paper received ※ 20 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP093 Radiation Damage Monitoring at PAL-XFEL 528
 
  • S.J. Lee, J.H. Han, Y.G. Jung, D.E. Kim, G. Mun
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) has two undulator beamlines, one hard and one soft X-ray beamlines. These two undulator beamlines are in operation since 2017. To maintain the FEL radiation property, the B-field properties of PAL-XFEL undulators need to be kept at certain level. Under the 10 GeV beam operation condition, the accumulated radiation can affect the permanent magnet properties of the undulators. However, the radiation damage of permanent magnet can be different by the operation environment and the geometry of the undulator. Accumulated radiation sensors and a miniature undulator with a few periods are installed in the PAL-XFEL hard X-ray undulator line to monitor the undulator radiation damage. In this proceeding, the radiation monitoring activities and the recent measurement results will be introduced.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP093  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP094 Variable-Period Variable-Pole Number Hybrid Undulator Design for Novosibirsk THz FEL 531
 
  • I.V. Davidyuk, O.A. Shevchenko, V.G. Tcheskidov, N.A. Vinokurov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
 
  The undulator developed for the first FEL of Novosibirsk FEL facility employs variable-period structure based on the hybrid undulator scheme with poles splinted into halves. The design was adapted to deliver optimal performance, estimations were made based on results of three-dimensional field simulations. According to the modeling results, the undulator will not only widen significantly the first FEL tuning range moving the long-wavelength border of the first harmonic from 200 µm to 450 µm but also provide wider aperture and increase efficiency at shorter wavelengths.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP094  
About • paper received ※ 18 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP095 The Athos Soft X-Ray Beamlines at SwissFEL 535
 
  • R. Follath, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, U.H. Wagner
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  After the successful start of the hard X-ray FEL at SwissFEL in 2016, the soft X-ray FEL ATHOS at SwissFEL is expected to deliver the first beam by end of 2019. This contribution describes the beamlines attached to the FEL and reports on the status and plans for this soft X-ray facility. The ATHOS facility will operate three end stations. Two stations are already defined and are currently in the design and construction phase whereas the third station will be defined in the future. The first station (AMO) is dedicated to Atomic and Molecular physics as well as nonlinear spectroscopy. It is expected to get light in mid 2020. The second station (Furka) is for condensed matter physics. The beamline consists of a grating monochromator and distributes the beam downstream of the grating chamber by means of horizontal deflecting mirrors. Pink and monochromatic beam operation is foreseen at all branches. The monochromator uses variable line-spacing gratings on spherical substrates with a variable included angle and operates without an entrance slit. Its mechanics is based on the SX-700 design, but with the grating facing up and the mirror facing down. The installation of the beamline will start in August 2019.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP095  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP097 Operational Model of the Athos Undulator Beamline 538
 
  • C. Kittel, M. Calvi, X. Liang, T. Schmidt
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • N.J. Sammut
    University of Malta, Information and Communication Technology, Msida, Malta
 
  Athos, the new Soft X-ray beamline of SwissFEL, operates 16 Apple X undulators and 15 compact chicanes to implement novel lasing schemes. With the data available after the end of the magnetic measurement campaign (middle 2020), a self-consistent set of equations will be used to summarise all the relevant properties of those devices to start their commissioning. The analytical approach planned will be discussed in great detail and tested with the preliminary experimental data available. Finally, the accuracy of this approach will be evaluated and critically compared to the requirements of the new FEL beamline.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP097  
About • paper received ※ 27 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP098 Advanced Operational Models of the Apple X Undulator 541
 
  • X. Liang, M. Calvi, C. Kittel, T. Schmidt
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • N.J. Sammut
    University of Malta, Information and Communication Technology, Msida, Malta
 
  Athos is a new soft X-ray beamline at SwissFEL, where the Apple X type undulators will be equipped. These devices are flexible to produce light in different polarization modes. An adequate magnetic field model is required for the operation of undulator. The undulator deflection parameter K and its gradient are calculated starting from the Fourier series of the magnetic field. In the classical parallel and anti-parallel operational modes - respectively elliptical and linear modes, the variation of the magnetic field as well as its parameters are evaluated by computer modeling. The results are compared to the magnetic measurements of the first Apple X prototype.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP098  
About • paper received ※ 27 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP100 Conceptual Design of a Permanent Magnet Undulator for Fast Pulse-to-Pulse Polarization Switching in an FEL 545
 
  • T.Y. Chung, C.-S. Hwang
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
 
  In this paper, we propose the design of an undulator to alter polarization at a fast frequency and the energy spectrum pulse-to-pulse in free-electron lasers (FELs). A fast time varying magnetic field generated in an undulator can alter characteristic light features. An electromagnetic (EM) and permanent magnet (PM) type undulator provides typically a magnetic field switching frequency below 100 Hz. Inductance and heating issues from coils limit the performance for the EM type and favor small magnetic fields and longer periods and for the PM type, strong magnetic forces between magnet arrays create undesired relative motion. In this paper, we discuss these issues and propose an undulator made of Halbach cylinders with rotating magnet arrays to switch the magnetic fields. Concept, magnet structure and performance are discussed in this note.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP100  
About • paper received ※ 30 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP101 Linear Polarisation via a Delta Afterburner for the CompactLight Facility 549
 
  • H.M. Castañeda Cortés, D.J. Dunning, N. Thompson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: CompactLight is funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No.777431.
We studied the degree of polarisation of the FEL radiation from the diverted-beam scheme [1,2] using the layout of the CompactLight facility, which is in the process of being designed. To satisfy the polarisation requirements defined by the users [3] without compromising the aim of the facility to be compact, we studied a configuration comprising a helical Super Conductive Undulator (SCU) followed by a Delta afterburner (configured to generate linearly polarised light). The trade-offs between the SCU length, afterburner length, degree of polarisation and output power are presented and discussed.
[1] E. A. Schneidmiller and M. V. Yurkov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 16, 11702 (2013)
[2] A. Lutman et al., Nature Photonics 10, 468(2016)
[3] A. Mak et al., FREIA Report 2019/01, 2019
 
poster icon Poster WEP101 [1.083 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP101  
About • paper received ※ 16 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP103 A Plasma Attenuator for Soft X-Rays in LCLS-II 553
 
  • A.S. Fisher, A.L. Benwell, Y. Feng, B.T. Jacobson
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Attenuation of X-ray FEL beams is often required to avoid damaging optics and detectors during alignment, and to study fluence-dependent effects. Soft X-rays are commonly attenuated by photoabsorption in a gas such as argon. However, absorbing a mJ pulse along a meter creates a pressure wave that drives gas away from the X-ray propagation axis, until equilibrium recovers in ~1 ms. This timescale matched the 120-Hz pulse spacing of LCLS, but at the high repetition rate (up to 1 MHz) and power (up to 200 W) of LCLS-II, the attenuation of subsequent pulses is reduced. Simulations demonstrate hysteresis and erratic attenuation from gas-density depletion. Instead, we propose to replace the gas column with an argon plasma in a TM010 RF cavity. The density profile then is largely set by the RF mode. X-ray absorption becomes a perturbation compared to the energy in the plasma. An LCLS-II solid-state RF amplifier, generating up to 4 kW at 1.3 GHz, can provide the drive, and the FPGA-based low-level RF controller can be programmed to track tuning with plasma density. Several diagnostics are planned to monitor plasma properties over a fill-pressure range of 10 to 1000 Pa.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP103  
About • paper received ※ 16 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 28 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP104 A High-Power, High-Repetition Rate THz Source for LCLS-II Pump-Probe Experiments 556
 
  • Z. Zhang, A.S. Fisher, M.C. Hoffmann, Z. Huang, B.T. Jacobson, P.S. Kirchmann, W.S. Lee, A. Lindenberg, E.A. Nanni, R.W. Schoenlein
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • S. Sasaki, J.Z. Xu
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
 
  Experiments using a THz pump and an x-ray probe at an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility like LCLS-II require frequency-tunable (3 to 20 THz), narrow bandwidth ( ∼ 10\%), carrier-envelope-phase-stable THz pulses that produce high fields (>1MV/cm) at the repetition rate of the x rays and well synchronized with them. In this paper, we study a two-bunch scheme to generate THz radiation at LCLS-II: the first bunch produces THz radiation in a permanent-magnet or electromagnet wiggler immediately following the LCLS-II undulator that produces X-rays from the second bunch. The initial time delay between the two bunches is optimized to compensate for the path difference in transport. We describe the two-bunch beam dynamics, the THz wiggler and radiation, as well as the transport system bringing the THz pulses from the wiggler to the experimental hall.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP104  
About • paper received ※ 23 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 17 September 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WEP107 Polarizing Afterburner for the LCLS-II Undulator Line 560
 
  • H.-D. Nuhn
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
A fixed-gap polarizing undulator (Delta) has been successfully operated in afterburner mode in the LCLS FEL beamline at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) from August 2014 to the end of operations of the LCLS facility in December 2018. The LCLS undulator line is currently being replaced by two new undulator lines (as part of the LCLS-II project) to operate in the hard and soft X-ray wavelength ranges. Polarizing afterburners are planned for the end of the soft X-ray (SXR) line. A new polarizing undulator (Delta-II) is being developed for two reasons: (1) increased maximum K value to be resonant over the entire operational range of the SXR beamline (2) variable gap for K value control. It has been shown that using row phase control to reduce the K value while operating in circular polarizing mode severely degrades the performance of a polarizing undulator in afterburner mode. The device is currently scheduled for installation 2020-2021. The paper will explain the need for the variable gap design backed up by beam based measurements done with the LCLS Delta undulator.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WEP107  
About • paper received ※ 27 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WED01 Experience with Short-Period, Small Gap Undulators at the SwissFEL Aramis Beamline 564
 
  • T. Schmidt, M. Aiba, A.D. Alarcon, C. Arrell, S. Bettoni, M. Calvi, A. Cassar, E. Ferrari, R. Follath, R. Ganter, N. Hiller, P.N. Juranič, C. Kittel, F. Löhl, E. Prat, S. Reiche, T. Schietinger, D. Voulot, U.H. Wagner
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • N.J. Sammut
    University of Malta, Faculty of Engineering, Msida, Malta
 
  The SwissFEL Aramis beamline provides hard X-ray FEL radiation down to 1 Angström with 5.8 GeV and short period, 15 mm, in-vacuum undulators (U15). To reach the maximum designed K-value of 1.8 the U15s have to be operated with vacuum gaps down to 3.0 mm. The thirteen-undulator modules are 4 m long and each of them is equipped with a pair of permanent magnet quadrupoles at the two ends, aligned magnetically to the undulator axis. Optical systems and dedicated photon diagnostics are used to check the alignment and improve the K-value calibration. In this talk the main steps of the undulator commissioning will be recalled and a systematic comparison between the magnetic results and the electron and photon based measurements will be reported to highlight achievements and open issues.  
slides icon Slides WED01 [13.825 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WED01  
About • paper received ※ 28 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 06 November 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WED02 Absorbed Radiation Doses on the European XFEL Undulator Systems During Early User Experiments 569
 
  • F. Wolff-Fabris, J. Pflüger, H. Sinn
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • W. Decking, D. Nölle, F. Schmidt-Föhre
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Hedqvist, F. Hellberg
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
 
  The EuXFEL is a FEL user facility based on a superconducting accelerator with high duty cycle. Three gap movable SASE Undulator Systems using hybrid NdFeB permanent magnet segments are operated. Radiation damage on undulators can impact the quality of the SASE process and ultimately threaten user operation. We observed [1] in the commissioning phase doses up to 4 kGy and 3% demagnetization effect in a diagnostic undulator. Currently all SASE systems are used for user photon delivery and in this work we present characteristics of the absorbed radiation doses on undulators under stable conditions. Doses on the upstream segments are found to be originated in the event of occasional high energy electron losses. In contrast, towards the downstream end of a SASE system, individual segments show persistent absorbed doses which are proportional to the transmitted charge and are dominated by low energy radiation. This energy-dependence depiction shall result in distinct radiation damage thresholds for individual segments. Portable magnetic flux measurement systems allow in-situ tunnel assessment of undulator properties in order to estimate radiation dose limits for future user operation.
[1] F. Wolff-Fabris et al., J. of Phys. - Conf. Series 1067, 032025 (2018)
 
slides icon Slides WED02 [7.344 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-WED02  
About • paper received ※ 19 August 2019       paper accepted ※ 27 August 2019       issue date ※ 05 November 2019  
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WED03
Pulse Resolved Photon Diagnostics at MHz Repetition Rates  
 
  • J. Grünert, F. Dietrich, W. Freund, A. Koch, N.G. Kujala, J. Laksman, J. Liu, Th. Maltezopoulos, M.P. Planas
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
 
  The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) enables a new era in the research of ultrafast dynamics of microscopic structures with atomic resolution. First light was demonstrated in May 2017 and operation started with three undulator beamlines and six experimental endstations with a commissioning phase from 2017 till early 2019 [1]. The world-wide unique feature of this machine is the combination of immensely brilliant and ultrashort X-ray pulses with a repetition rate in the MHz range. However, this also requires novel photon diagnostics [2] to cope with these extreme conditions, to enable stable machine operation and to deliver beam diagnostic data to the users. In this contribution, we describe the results obtained in the commissioning and operation of the facility diagnostics capable of surviving exposure to multi-bunch operation and resolving the characteristics of individual pulses at MHz rates. In particular we employ for this task gas-ionization monitors, photoelectron spectroscopy of ionized noble gases, gated scintillator imaging, crystal spectrometers and arrival time monitors with fast line detectors, diamond detectors, and multi-channel plate based intensity monitors.
[1] T. Tschentscher et al., Appl. Sci. 7, 592 (2017).
[2] J. Gruenert et al., accepted for publication in J. Synchrotron Rad. (2019).
 
slides icon Slides WED03 [4.921 MB]  
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WED04
Undulator Adjustment with the K-Monochromator System at the European XFEL  
 
  • W. Freund, J. Grünert, S. Karabekyan, A. Koch, J. Liu
    EuXFEL, Schenefeld, Germany
  • L. Fröhlich, D. Nölle, J. Wilgen
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The SASE1 and SASE2 undulator systems of the European XFEL consist of 35 segments with variable-gap planar undulators which are initially tuned to precise on-axis magnetic field strengths in a magnetic measurement lab. After tunnel installation only photon based methods can determine the K-values of undulator segments with a similar accuracy. The spontaneous radiation of single or few undulator cells is spectrally filtered with the K-monochromator (K-mono) and recorded with a sensitive spontaneous radiation imager (SR-imager). By processing the images from the SR-imager and geometrical fitting of the spatial distribution of the spontaneous radiation we obtain very fast the K-parameter and the beam pointing of single segments. This information is used for adjustments of the gap settings and vertical offset positions of the single undulator segments. In this presentation we describe the K-mono system at the European XFEL, the measurement principle, and the measurements that were performed [1].
[1] "First measurements with the K-Monochromator at European XFEL", proceedings of PhotonDiag 2018, JSR (in publication)
 
slides icon Slides WED04 [13.278 MB]  
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